Infections are an important reason of increased morbidity and mortality in children with DS. Infection in children with DS characterized by increased severity of infection due to accentuated inflammatory response; increased the need for intensive care; prolonged duration of illness and need for extra or augmented treatment to cure the same infections compared with the normal population. In this chapter we will discuss the causes of increased infections in children with DS, the relation of infection to the pathogenesis of DS, the common infection in DS and immune modulation of children with DS. Every effort should be done to minimize the risk of infection and to improve their immunity.
Keywords: Air way anomalies, Antioxidants, Bacterial pneumonia, Breast feeding, Children, Congenital ear anomalies, Congenital Heart Diseases, Down syndrome, Gastro-oesophageal reflux, Hygiene, Immune aging, Immune modulation, Immunodeficiency, Infections, Nutritional deficiencies, Otitis media, Palivizumab, Pidotimod, Respiratory syncytial virus, Vaccination.