Congenital vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of lesions that may occur as isolated findings or as part of a constellation of symptoms or syndrome. These anomalies are divided into vascular tumors or vascular malformations depending on the growth rate of their constituent cells. Infantile hemangiomas are vascular tumors and are the most common of the vascular anomalies followed by capillary malformations, lymphatic malformations, venous malformations and arteriovenous malformations. Proper diagnosis is critical for appropriate management of these enigmatic lesions. Diagnosis is usually readily secured by history and physical findings although imaging studies are sometimes necessary. Management varies considerably depending on the nature of the lesion, its propensity for growth and its physical impact. Observation is appropriate for some vascular anomalies, while others require pharmacologic treatment, sclerotherapy, embolization, laser treatment or surgical excision. Nearly all patients with vascular anomalies should be seen by a physician or team of physicians who specializes in the care of these unique disorders.
Keywords: Vascular anomaly, vascular tumor, infantile hemangioma, congenital hemangioma, PHACES, Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, Kassabach Merritt phenomenon, capillary malformation, tufted angioma, lymphatic malformation, venous malformation, arteriovenous malformation.