Diabetes mellitus remains the most common endocrine disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, often associated with attendant complications with high morbidity and mortality. Despite the successes recorded with the use of conventional chemotherapy in the disease management, phytotherapy appears to have good prospects in the effective management of the disease course and prognosis. In this review we will examine the etiopathological basis (including the recent advancements in its pathology), diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. The chapter provides information on the current conventional pharmacotherapy and supportive care as well as an in-depth and incisive analysis on the emerging trend in the use of herbal products. The evidencebased herbal pharmacotherapy that is currently employed in the management of the disease is discussed. In the concluding part of the chapter, the future prospects of the diverse anti-diabetic herbal remedies are also discussed.