Kidney Transplantation: Challenging the Future

Xenotransplantion: Perspectives on the Future

Author(s): Burcin Ekser

Pp: 378-389 (12)

DOI: 10.2174/978160805144111201010378

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Xenotransplantation using pig organs as source for transplant has the potential to overcome the severe shortage of human donor organs. Wide utilization of genetically-engineered pigs is enabling progress to be made in pig-to-nonhuman primate experimental models. Novel, non-nephrotoxic immunosuppressive regimens have largely overcome T cell rejection and a T cell-dependent elicited antibody response. Recent advances in understanding of the biology of xenograft rejection and zoonotic infections and the generation of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase-gene knockout pigs have moved this approach closer to the clinical application. However, inter-species coagulation dysregulation is proving a major hurdle. Progress in islet xenotransplantation has been more encouraging controlling diabetes in nonhuman primates up to 6 months, though this has usually been achieved using immunosuppressive protocols that might not be clinically applicable. Further advances are required to overcome the remaining barriers.

Keywords: Xenotransplantation, Coagulation Dysregulation, Pig, Genetically-Engineered, Nonhuman Primate, Tolerance, Knock-Out, Hyperacute Rejection, Immunosuppression, Xenozoonosis.

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