Fundamental immunological principles and factors influencing production strategies for antibodies used as reagents in analytical and diagnostic methods are highlighted. A role of the peptideprotein design for an antibody formation, covering particularly epitope selection, peptide and protein chemistry, carrier-protein conjugation including multiple antigen protein approach are described. Special attention is paid to hapten design and production of antibodies against molecules having lowmolecular character. Critical stages in polyclonal and monoclonal antibody development as well as practical hints for their production are discussed.
Keywords: Antibodies, Production, Hapten, Immunogens