Advanced Materials for Emerging Applications (Innovations, Improvements, Inclusion and Impact)

On the Selection and use of Biomaterials and Implants in Orthopedics: A Study and Evaluation into the Future

Author(s): K. Cheirmadurai, K. Praveenkumar, C. Uvanarayanan, P. Suya Prem Anand and Geetha Manivasagam * .

Pp: 353-394 (42)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815196771124010015

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

The selection of suitable biomaterials and implants is the most important criterion to achieve success in biomedical engineering. Several factors such as high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, enhanced wear resistance, biodegradability, and biocompatibility need to be considered before choosing the material for biomedical applications. The biomaterials are developed from metals, metal alloys, ceramics, and polymers based on specific applications. In the orthopedic field, inert materials have been used in earlier times that showed minimal cell-material interaction, and bioinert materials were preferred to avoid immune rejection and increase the success rate. Metallic alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V, 316 stainless steel, and cobalt-chromium are frequently used in the fabrication of bone implants. Metal alloys have problems like corrosion and are less bioactive. In recent years, the concept of regeneration has been developed and it is entirely based on cell-material interactions, and the selected materials need to exert bioactivity. Regenerative materials are prepared from biodegradable metals, polymers, and ceramics. Numerous techniques have been developed recently to convert a bioinert material into bioactive or regenerative material. Smart materials and implants with bioactive surfaces are also getting more attention in the orthopedic field. This chapter throws light on two fields that have contributed to bone replacement and regeneration. An overview of the bioinert implants in the orthopedic industry and the current development of bioinert into bioactive and immunomodulating materials will be discussed. The future aspects describe the role of smart materials for bone regeneration in detail. 


Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Biodegradable implants, Cobalt-chromium, Orthopedic implants, Smart implants, Surface modifications, Surface texturing, Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V.

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