Software and Programming Tools in Pharmaceutical Research

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling (PK/PD) in Pharmaceutical Research: Current Research and Advances

Author(s): Richa Sood* and Anita A.

Pp: 153-169 (17)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815223019124010009

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


The development of more intricately constructed molecules and drug delivery systems as a result of technological breakthroughs has increased our understanding of the complexities of disease and allowed us to identify a wide range of therapeutic targets. New drug combinations can be designed by correctly using dynamical systems-based PK/PD models. The unswerving approach that offers a better knowledge and understanding of therapeutic efficacy and safety is the use of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling in drug research. In vivo, animal testing or in vitro bioassay is used to forecast efficacy and safety in people. Model-based simulation using primary pharmacodynamic models for direct and indirect responses is used to elucidate the assumption of a fictitious minimal effective concentration or threshold in the exposure-response relationship of many medicines. In this current review, we have abridged the basic PK-PD modeling concepts of drug delivery and documented how they can be used in current research and development. 

Keywords: Clinical development, Modeling, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Preclinical.

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