Nanoelectronics Devices: Design, Materials, and Applications Part II

Application of Nanomaterials in the Medical Field: A Review

Author(s): Kamaljyoti Talukdar * .

Pp: 355-405 (51)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815179361123010014

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

Nanomaterials are particles in sizes from 1-100 nm. Nanomaterials have a wide field of applications in aviation and aerospace, chemical industries, optics, solar hydrogen, fuel cell, batteries, sensors, power generation, aeronautic industry, buildingconstruction industry, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, paints, and cosmetics. Also, efforts are being made to develop friendly alternate energy sources using nanomaterials. In this chapter, the main focus will be on the application of nanomaterials in various aspects of the medical field. Nanomaterials are used in various medical devices. Some of the nanomaterials used in the area of optical imaging are quantum dots, and in MRI are superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Also, nanomaterials are applied in ultrasound imaging and radionuclide imaging. Due to the small size of batteries (e.g., for pacemakers) or electronic circuits and sensors utilized in medical devices presently made using nanomaterials. New ceramics consisting of materials derived from sintered nanopowders (comparable to 3D-printing) or having a specially designed surface are made from so-called nanostructures for teeth filling or screws for dental implants. For bio-detection of pathogens, detection of proteins, and phagokinetic studies, nanomaterials are also used. For fluorescent biological labels, drug and gene delivery, probing of DNA structure, tissue engineering, tumour destruction via heating (hyperthermia), separation and purification of biological molecules and cells, MRI contrast enhancement, osteoporosis treatment, infection prevention, bone regeneration are some of the applications of nanomaterials used in medicines. Cancer therapy, neurodegenerative disease therapy, HIV/AIDS therapy, ocular disease therapy, respiratory disease therapy, sight-restoring therapy, and gene therapy are various therapies nanomaterials are used Nanomaterials used in various surgeries are surgical oncology, thoracic surgery, replacement of heart with an artificial heart, vascular surgery, neurosurgery, radiosurgery, ophthalmic surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, maxillofacial surgery, orthopedic surgery, intracellular surgery by nanorobots. Although all applications of nanomaterials have pros and cons, care should be taken so that the cons can be minimized.


Keywords: Medical, Medicines, Nanomaterials, Surgery, Therapy.

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