Solid State & Microelectronics Technology


Author(s): Sunipa Roy*, Chandan Kumar Ghosh*, Sayan Dey* and Abhijit Kumar Pal * .

Pp: 369-389 (21)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815079876123010013

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


A few lithography techniques have been developed in the past few decades with improvements in lens systems and advanced radiation sources for exposure, such as photons, X-rays, electrons, ions, and neutral atoms. With each type of exposure source, the instrumental details significantly change. However, the fundamental principle behind the lithographic approaches remains the same. Photolithography is the most intensive technique in microelectronic fabrication, especially for the bulk production of integrated circuits (ICs). Below the different types of lithography techniques are described in detail.

Keywords: Maskless lithography, Optical lithography, Processes, Soft lithography process.

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