Antibiotics are in high demand across the world in a variety of industries .
The use of antibiotics has become a global threat, being called an emerging pollutant.
Thus, they are incorrectly disposed of in wastewater and their bioremediation becomes
indispensable. In this context, the objective of this chapter is to explore the
bioremediation of antibiotics. First, information was provided on the sources of
antibiotics in wastewater and their possible impacts on the environment and humans.
Then, the antibiotic removal process performed by microorganisms and microalgaebased processes was discussed, showing the factors that interfere with their
performance in the removal of antibiotics. Finally, future prospects for fostering
development in this area were analyzed.
Keywords: Antibiotic, Bioremediation, Climatic conditions, Conventional process, Environmental impacts, Microalgae-based processes, Pharmaceutical pollutants, Primary treatment, Secondary treatment, Tertiary treatment, Wastewater.