Antibiotics are defined as medicines used for the prevention and treatment
of bacterial infections. They act as growth inhibitors or destroy the bacteria by
destructing the bacterial cell wall or inhibiting energy generation from glucose within
the cell. When bacteria adapt to resistance or develop the ability to resist the factors &
survive after being exposed to antibiotics, they become resistant to antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance occurs due to several changes (physical, chemical, environmental)
or undergoing mutation in bacterial DNA. There are many ways through which
antibiotics may reach groundwater. The increased use of antibiotics leads them to
transfer from one place to another. They can be transferred from hospitals to humans
and from human waste to groundwater. Agriculture practices, poultry farming, and
industrial techniques also allow antibiotics to reach groundwater, which further affects
aquatic lives and also causes antibiotic resistance in bacteria.