Therapeutic Nanocarriers in Cancer Treatment: Challenges and Future Perspective

Cancer Biology

Author(s): Aakanchha Jain*, Shiv Kumar Prajapati, Dolly Jain, Richa Jain, Amrita Kumari Panda, Nagma Parveen, Satpal Singh Bisht and Santosh Kumar Behera

Pp: 1-30 (30)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815080506123010004

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


As stated by Globocan, there were around 82 lakh cancer-related deaths and 141 lakh new cancer diagnoses worldwide in 2012. Normal genes that are expressed improperly or exhibit aberrant expression may cause neoplasia, often known as cancer. Oncogenes are mutated forms of normal cellular genes that contribute to the development of cancer. Typically, oncogenes govern cell development and differentiation. Proapoptotic genes initiate cell death and decrease the number of cells. Antioncogens, or tumour suppressor genes, regulate cell division negatively. Tumours are caused by genes that directly or indirectly control cellular proliferation or inhibition, or that govern apoptosis or any sort of cell death. As a target for the development of novel cancer treatments, tumour cell metabolism has gained substantial attention. Identification of cancer has always been a crucial aspect of diagnosis and therapy. Markers for cancer are one of the most effective approaches for recognising, diagnosing, treating, monitoring progressions, and evaluating chemical resistance. A biomarker is “a distinctive biochemical, genetic, or molecular characteristic or material that signals a particular biological state or treatment.” Tumour biomarkers are often seen in moderation in the absence of a tumour. The activation of CDKs (protein kinases) aids in the progression of cells from one phase of the cell cycle to the next. Various isoforms of CDK/cyclin complexes are capable of binding with a regulating cyclin protein. Aloisine is a potent inhibitor of CDK1, CDK 2, and CDK 5, and it has been observed that GSK3 (Glycogen synthase kinase 3) terminates cell division. Antimicrotubule medicines cause the mitotic Chk to halt the cell cycle by inhibiting microtubules. The presence of cancer cells results in enhanced cell proliferation and expansion. They can result in an absence of apoptosis and excessive cell proliferation. DNA damage or significant cellular stress might result in cell death. In cancer cells, proapoptosis is often missing or inhibited. iPSCs and cancer cells have comparable transcriptome profiles, including surface antigen markers identified by the immune system. MSCs producing IFN- accelerate the killing of tumour cells, augment NK cell activity, and decrease angiogenesis. This chapter provides an introduction of the fundamentals of cancer biology, including its characteristics, metabolic processes, and biomarkers.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Cancer biology and tumour vasculature, Cell Cycle, Genes, Metastasis.

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