Emerging Technologies and Applications for a Smart and Sustainable World

Environmental Monitoring and Management

Author(s): C. Subha*, Priya A.K., Kalaimani R. and Sivakumar V.

Pp: 151-174 (24)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815036244122010011

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Clean and healthy environmental maintenance is very important for sustainable development. Prevention and reduction of pollution, and reuse, and recycling of materials are some of the best practices of environmental management. Environmental monitoring is a systematic method of sampling air, water, soil and biota and assessing their quality and characteristics. The environmental monitoring process includes establishing a baseline of exposure, correlating with contamination source, estimating concentration changes of pollutants and extracting the information from collected data. This information can be used as input for the design of treatment plants; to check for compliance with standards, preventive measures of hazards, etc., the monitoring methods are categorized as ground-based sampling and measurements, a simulation model-based monitoring, and satellite monitoring. Ground-based monitoring provides accurate results, whereas simulation models give prior information about the prediction of pollutant levels, and satellite monitoring details environmental quality over a greater areal extend. Monitoring can also be subdivided into source and ambient environmental monitoring. IoT-based smart environmental monitoring is gaining more attraction nowadays with the advent of technology. It makes the labor-intensive process a simple one. The chapter explains the different IoT components/architectures of monitoring various applications related to air, water, and soil quality. Application of IoT is not only limited to the Sestriere sources but also monitoring of forest fires, analysis, and prediction of climate change patterns, early warning systems of natural disasters, monitoring levels of snowfall, etc. 

Keywords: Air quality monitoring, Environmental monitoring, IoT, Municipal solid waste management, Municipal solid waste monitoring, Sensors, Smart city, Types of monitoring, Waste bin, Water quality monitoring.

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