Abdominal Pain: Essential Diagnosis and Management in Acute Medicine

Specific Diagnoses and Management Principles of the Urinary and Genital Tract Diseases

Author(s): Ozgur KARCIOGLU, Selman YENİOCAK, Mandana HOSSEINZADEH and Seckin Bahar SEZGIN

Pp: 190-216 (27)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815051780122010008

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and genital tract diseases (GTD) are among the most common infectious diseases with female predominance. On the other hand, acute epididymitis and orchitis are the most common GTDs which cause scrotal pain in adult males. Testicular torsion is a true medical emergency with vascular compromise and mandates immediate intervention to beware of serious complications. Although a majority are self-limiting diseases which can be treated easily, rapid diagnosis and management of certain UTIs and GTDs are a must to prevent grave outcomes. The infections may inflict the lower and/or the upper parts of urinary tract which also determines the severity of the disease. The urinary stone disease generally presents with ureteral colicky pain, blunt flank pain, nausea/vomiting, and hematuria with a male predominance. Most patients are managed easily in the acute setting but some are prone to deterioration with protracted urinary obstruction and resultant renal damage. The utilization of reliable, easy-to-use diagnostic tools with high accuracy is the key to expedient detection, identification and treatment. Ultrasound provides invaluable information in point-of-care diagnosis of most urinary tract diseases in both sexes. Management should be individualized in accord with the patients’ signs and symptoms, general status and outcome estimations.

Keywords: Acute epididymitis, Genital tract disease, Gynecological pain, Orchitis, Ovarian torsion, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Pyelonephritis, Testicular torsion, Ureteral colic, Urinary stone disease.

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