The increasing need for environmentally friendly products or substances is
driving the use of metabolites based on beneficial microorganisms. Soil is essential for
the maintenance of biodiversity above and below ground. Millions of microorganisms
live and reproduce in a few grams of topsoil, an ecosystem essential for life on earth.
Moreover, microorganisms are capable of producing chemical compounds that have
not been synthesized in the laboratory or can only be processed with considerable
difficulty. Not only do these soil microflorae play a significant role in the conservation
of soil quality, but they also play a vital role in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and
industrial applications. In this chapter, we address recent advances in the industrial
manufacture of chemical products by microorganisms.