Sustainable Utilization of Fungi in Agriculture and Industry

Mycorrhizae as Bioinoculants and their Molecular Studies

Author(s): Sanjeev Kumar K, Revathi Desai and Pavan Kumar Pindi * .

Pp: 123-133 (11)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815040340122020012

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

 Several studies on bioinoculants have been conducted in order to address the most serious threat to our nation's security, namely food security. This problem can be solved by re-evaluating our practises and skills in order to increase food production through the use of sustainable farming methods. Several microorganisms can be found in rhizospheric soils in nature. These organisms solubilize nutrients and facilitate nutrient uptake by plant roots, promoting plant growth through natural processes such as nutrient cycling and absorption, stress tolerance, immunity induction, and so on. Microbes include mycorrhizae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, actinomycetes, and others. Plant growth-promoting microorganisms rely heavily on mycorrhizae (PGPM). So far, seven different types of mycorrhizae have been identified. The arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi are the most numerous and widespread mycorrhizae. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi are important in improving soil physicochemical properties and interacting with other PGPM such as phosphate solubilizing bacteria, nitrogen fixers, and so on. Chemical fertilisers used in agricultural fields reduce AM and its potency. Because these organisms cannot be cultured, PCR techniques can be used to obtain sufficient amounts of DNA from them. The focus of this chapter has been on arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi. An attempt was made to study AM fungi colonisation using PCR in order to better understand its efficiency. Such research contributes to the goal of transforming food insecurity into food security. 


Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizae, Bioinoculants, PCR, PGPM, Sustainable farming.

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