Pharmacological and Molecular Perspectives on Diabetes

Circadian Rhythm Disruption: Special Reference to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): Pragya Verma* and Ramji Dubey

Pp: 134-145 (12)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815040227122010014

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


We live in a rhythmic world where both internal (in the body) and external (natural) processes are harmoniously synced to each other to function in a rhythmic pattern. Whenever this synchronization between the two is disturbed, it creates misalignment leading to rhythm disruption. In today’s 24x7 society, the majority of health issues are due to lifestyle disorders that have their genesis in circadian rhythm disruption. One such lifestyle disorder that has reached the heights equivalent to the epidemic is Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the current chapter, the role of the endogenous biological clock (of organ and tissue) in regulating glucose metabolism is discussed by citing the basal and advanced research done in the related field. Our effort is to build up a connection between circadian misalignment and its probable effect with special reference to T2DM. We started with the description of circadian rhythm, overviewing the daily glucose metabolism. We then discussed the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus in light of circadian rhythm disruption. Every organ in the human body has its clock and rhythm, thus it is a complex mechanism involving dysfunction of pancreatic b-cells, deposition of fat near visceral organs and insulin resistance, etc. Workstress and schedules have increased the risks of obesity and diabetes. Thus, it seems the need of the hour to focus on chronopathology and chronomedicine as alternative treatment strategies to manage and prevent T2DM, which can further, contribute to the reduction of the risks of metabolic co-morbidities in the human population.

Keywords: Circadian rhythms, Clock disruption, Diurnal pattern, Glucose metabolism, Lifestyle disorders, T2DM.

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