Atopic dermatitis (AD) or atopic eczema is a complex and multifactorial
chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by intense itching and recurrent
eczematous lesions. It is very frequent, affecting up to 20% of children in developed
countries, and its prevalence has increased worldwide. Patients with AD have an
increased risk of developing food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma later in life; but
may also present other comorbidities. The main symptom of AD is pruritus, which
along with sleep disturbance, decreases the quality of life not only in patients but also
in their families. Therapeutic options for AD have historically been limited, but recent
advances have increased our understanding of its underlying mechanisms, contributing
to the development of new therapies. In this chapter, we review the most recent
knowledge about etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, and
treatment options of AD.
Keywords: Atopic Dermatitides, Atopic Dermatitis, Atopic Eczema, Atopic Neurodermatitides, Atopic Neurodermatitis, Disseminated Neurodermatitides, Disseminated Neurodermatitis, Infantile Eczema, Pediatrics, Quality of life.