Nanotherapeutics for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Therapeutic Challenges

Author(s): Somenath Datta * .

Pp: 98-122 (25)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815039740122010004

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic
malignancy and accounts for more than 90% of liver cancers. Despite HBV vaccination
programs and targeted therapies, the global burden of HCC is still increasing. Early
diagnosis of HCC has been crucial for selecting the best curative treatment options and
improving overall patient survival. Despite several advancements in surveillance
programs and diagnostic strategies, most HCC cases are still diagnosed at the late
stages when most of the current therapeutics become ineffective, making HCC one of
the main reasons for cancer-related deaths. Enormous heterogeneity in HCC poses the
most prominent challenges for scientists and physicians in designing perfect staging
systems and therapeutic selection for HCC patients. Although several HCC therapeutic
advancements have come up in the past decade, the current status is far from
satisfactory. At present, HCC therapeutics are struggling with several challenges: a
shortage of human donors for transplantation, drug resistance, lack of standard
operating protocol for immunotherapy, etc. Some clinical trials using single or
combination therapies are currently underway, hoping to overcome some of these
challenges. Constant improvement in HCC therapeutic strategies and prevention
measures provides optimism for further advancement in the coming future.

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Early diagnosis, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Immuno checkpoints, Immunotherapy, Multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs), Nanoparticle, Prognostic assessments, Systemic therapy, Transplantation.

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