Exposure to Aluminium and other heavy metals has become a serious concern in today’s modern life. Due to excessive use and improper disposal of heavy metals, the entire food chain is being contaminated, which is imposing various health risks for humans and other living organisms. These heavy metals particularly induce oxidative stress through different mechanisms which can ultimately interfere with the normal physiological activities. Brain is highly prone to oxidative stress due to its rich polyunsaturated content and high oxygen consumption than the periphery. Therefore, emphasis has been given to neurotoxicological effects produced by exposure to heavy metals. In this regard, the effects of both essential and non-essential heavy metals have been investigated in various clinical studies which are demonstrating them as a serious threat to normal brain function. This chapter summarizes the neurotoxicological effects of heavy metals which have been revealed in various human studies.