Cancer is commonly considered the “Pathology of the Century” assuming the associations of an endemic disease spread throughout the world. The beginning of the 20th century witnessed an improvement in the surgical techniques for tumorexcision, with the first abdominoperineal resection performed in 1908. Cancer treatment has been considered by its ups and downs throughout history, not only because of the side effect of treatments but also for the authenticity of cure and full remission, if any. In recent years, the first treatment of choice is immunotherapy with their significant therapeutic alternative. Nanotechnology is a new therapeutic replacement offering nanostructures for combining the treatment and imaging, targeted drug delivery, hyperthermia, and personalized, targeted therapy. Nowadays, gene therapy is contributing to a new approach to cancer treatment. These therapies can function independently or dependently with peptides, antibodies, folic acid, among others. In this chapter, we discuss the progression of cancer therapies and remedies, including immunotherapy, radiation, chemotherapy, surgery, nanomedicine, signalling pathway inhibitors and targeted gene therapy and their possible challenges.