Neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases is accompanied by excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These processes lead to the generation of lipid mediators. The intensity of cross talk among lipid mediators dictates the rate of neurodegeneration in above neurological diseases. In neurodegenerative diseases cell death occurs slowly (months to years), where as in neurotraumatic diseases, neurodegeneration occurs rapidly (minutes to hours) through necrosis at the core of injury, whereas in penumbral region neurons undergo delayed neurodegeneration through apoptosis. Presence of lipid mediators in biological fluids can be used for the diagnosis of above neurological disorders.