Lithium is a type of psychotropic drug, belonging to the normothymics classification group. It is used in the treatment of affective disorders such as manic and hypomanic phases of bipolar disorder and severe and treatment-resistant depression. It also has anti-suicidal properties and a neuroprotective effect on neurodegenerative diseases. This article presents findings regarding the effects of lithium in experimental pathology of the central nervous system in mice and rats. In clinical practice, lithium is the standard for pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorders. The drug is also effective in treating depression. It suppresses aggressiveness and is a therapeutic agent in the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Lithium salts however can be highly toxic even in relatively low doses. The mechanism of action of lithium salts can be realized through the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase -3β (GSK-3β) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMAP1). Inhibition of GSK-3β is considered to be one of the fundamental mechanisms in the implementation of the action of lithium ions on the body. Lithium stabilizes adenylate cyclase activity and acts as an antagonist of sodium ions in nerve and muscle cells. One of the ways to deliver lithium to target organs is to combine lithium salts with a sorbent (a solid porous carrier). This approach made it possible to create modified sorbents for the prolonged delivery of components such as lithium and silver. A new drug – a complex of lithium citrate and a sorbent – aluminum oxide and polydimethylsiloxane (lithium complex) was created at the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Lymphology – a branch of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS. Its anxiolytic and adaptogenic effects were observed over the course of preclinical studies. The lithium complex improved cognitive functions in experimental animals, influenced the electrophysiological activity of the brain and had positive effects on the behavior of mice in the experimental model of chronic social stress. The lithium complex is therefore a promising drug for the treatment of neurological and psychoemotional disorders.
Keywords: Aluminum oxide, Aggression, Alcohol, Anxiety-depressive disorder, Behavior, Brain electrophysiology, Conditioned reflex, Caffeine, Depression, Enterosorbent, Lithium, Lithium toxicity, Mice, Normothymic drug, Physical performance, Polydimethylsilloxane, Prevention, Rats, Serotonin, Serotonin receptors.