Microdialysis sampling has been coupled with several imaging modalities over the past two decades to either support the development of imaging approaches as diagnostic, prognostic or treatment response biomarkers, or to use this temporally rich sampling approach of brain tissue in parallel with one or more imaging modalities to provide an integrated, systems neuropharmacology, perspective of normal and diseased brain physiology. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the scientific literature that encompasses several imaging modalities (including PET, MRI, EEG, CT) that relied on microdialysis sampling for its supportive and/or parallel use in systems neuropharmacology research. A review of the important role microdialysis has played in supporting several PET imaging applications used in neuropharmacology research is provided. Integrated with PET, various MRI modalities, EEG and CT, microdialysis has deepened understanding of various neurotransmitter systems and their temporal and spatial integration as an in-tune, “normal” or dysynchronous, “diseased” system. Parallel use of microdialysis in humans suffering from traumatic brain injury or chronic epilepsy has been coupled with PET, MRI, EEG and CT approaches to develop systems-level understanding at the cellular, regional, and whole brain levels. Throughout the chapter, several publications are discussed that exemplify the results of this research. The chapter concludes with a presentation of the integrated use of microdialysis with imaging in Alzheimer’s Disease research, ending with the hope for expanded use of imaging modalities that can even be used in an ambulatory capacity, and how microdialysis can continue to play its established role to support their development and use in understanding and treating this disease.
Keywords: Alzheimer disease, Blood-brain barrier, Brain, Brain injuries, Central nervous system, Electroencephalography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Microdialysis, Neuropharmacology, Positron-emission tomography, Tomography.