Recent investigations have reported that the intestinal microbiome community possesses a significant health-promoting effect on the host physiology by the secretion of small biomolecules that exerts a unique ability to modulate the host cellular pathways. These small molecules act as a beneficial tool for host-microbial interactions and communication. Based on current evidence, postbiotics have the potency to be a safe and appropriate alternative to prevent side effects pertinent to probiotics besides the enforceable benefits such as treatments of some human complications. These beneficial effects are feasible through various mechanisms that are explained in related chapters. Some of the clinical advantages associated with postbiotics can refer to modulating the immune system, anti-diarrhea, anti-blood pressure activity, reducing blood cholesterol, anti-oxidant and anticancer activity, as well as suppressing cell proliferation. These properties indicate that postbiotics can improve the host’s health circumstances, albeit with unknown mechanisms. Another substantial advantage of postbiotics returns to their desirable immune condition. In this case, there is no need to adsorb the trillions of live microorganisms. Besides, it is possible to impose the postbiotics in a controlled and standard way. However, the live microbes' functions depend on their interactions in the gut and their metabolical activities. Therefore, the compounds of specified bacteria may turn into a biological strategy as a complementary treatment of many important diseases. The main challenge in this respect is the scientific knowledge transformation to commercial applications, which constitute a bridge between science and industry.
Keywords: Aging, Atopic dermatitis, Anti-cancer therapy, Alcohol-induced liver diseases, Colitis, Diarrhea, Food allergy, Gut microbial community, Immunomodulation, Intestinal barrier, Inflammation, Lactose intolerance, Postbiotics, Probiotic, Tooth decay.