COVID-19 Current Challenges and Future Perspectives

History and Epidemiology of COVID-19

Author(s): Ruchika Sharma

Pp: 11-26 (16)

Doi: 10.2174/9789811498640121010005

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

Researchers identified human coronaviruses (HCoV), for the first time in the year 1960s, to be responsible for cold. However, later that decade, it was observed that these viruses also affect the upper and lower respiratory tract and are probable common human pathogens. The last few eras witnessed the emergence of novel zoonotic viruses, including recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2 or COVID-19). The COVID-19 disease is extremely infectious and transmittable, which results in severe acute respiratory syndrome. This virus emerged in China’s Wuhan city wet market and spread globally within a few months. Molecular data analysis of genome revealed similarity of SARS-CoV-2 with severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses. The evidence for zoonotic virus spillover is not known, whereas the virus passes from human to human rapidly. This chapter discusses the origin of human coronaviruses and their distribution. Further, the global epidemiology of COVID- 19 is also discussed.


Keywords: Biological disasters, Coronavirus, Epidemics, Human pathogens, Pandemics, Respiratory syndrome, Spillover, Viruses, Zoonotic.

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