Nature has provided us better surroundings for the expansion and development of medicinal plants for thousands of years. Medicinal values of plants date back to ancient times on belief of its safety and economic value. Even in today’s scenario, about 80% of the globe population primarily depends on the alternative system of medicines for their foremost healthcare requisite. Plants contain different types of secondary metabolites also called bioactive components of the plants responsible for their medicinal value in nature. Scientific cultivation permits the applying of contemporary technological aspects like mutation, polyploidy and hybridization for the development of a better amount of secondary metabolites from the plants and their byproducts. Cultivation, collection and preservations of medicinal plants need simple techniques that preserve the medicinal values of natural products. Pharmacological activities of medicinal and aromatic plants are mainly depending upon the presence of various bioactive phytochemicals like alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, resins, volatile oil, etc. Growth and development of medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are mainly influenced by the physical surroundings, sunlight, temperature, rainfall, and nature of the soil. Seasonal variation and geographical region can also affect the quality of medicinal and aromatic plants as the concentration of bioactive constituent could be changed through natural factors. In the present book chapter, we have discussed all the important information needed for the cultivation, collection and processing of medicinal and aromatic plants that affect the quality of medicinal plants.