Until recently, the anaesthesiology and resuscitation resident training in difficult airway (DA) consisted solely of learning the techniques to maintain a patent airway, ventilation with face mask and direct laryngoscopy. In addition, it was believed that their acquisition was possible only with the repetition of such techniques during training, assuming that enough cases were exposed to meet this objective. There are several reasons that make it necessary to review this training system. such as the known data of avoidable morbidity related to DA, the development of a large number of new techniques for the management of DA in the last decade, the lower exposure of the resident to tracheal intubation, derived from the great thrust of regional anaesthesia, use of supraglottic elements or greater dedication to rotations outside the operating room. Besides, there have been advances in research on airway learning that deserve attention.