Nitrogen-containing compounds are among the pollutants that can cause serious environmental hazards. One of these hazards is nutrients enrichment of rivers that can result in eutrophication, decreased water quality, and potential health hazards for humans and animals, when released in the environment. Nitrate removal methods can be generally classified into physical, biological, and chemical reduction methods. The most commonly used methods in this regard are biological denitrification, ion exchange, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, chemical denitrification, adsorption, electrocoagulation, nanotechnology, and redox reaction. The first four methods have been used in the industry. Biological denitrification is an effective method because of the conversion of nitrate into N2 gas and the absence of secondary pollutant production. However, it is not widely used in the removal of nitrate from drinking water sources and underground water due to microbial contamination and rather is mostly used for wastewater treatment. The purpose of this study is to present a brief introduction on the use of physiochemical methods for the removal of nitrate from water and wastewater.