Numerous muscles acting simultaneously on the mandible are utilized to create a bite force. Defining the involvement of each muscle to the creation of this bite force is the biggest challenge as it cannot be resolved using the conditions of static equilibrium. Estimation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) forces from mathematical models has a long history but has led to conflicting results. The biggest disagreement has been over whether the TMJ is even load bearing. To model completely all of the forces involved in the production of the TMJ reaction force will be difficult as all force vectors need to be established in three-dimensions. Three different approaches have been proposed to calculate all the muscle forces and the forces in the temporomandibular joints during biting.