Stem cells have attracted great interest of biomedical scientists and clinicians due to their unique abilities of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. With the most current technologies, stem cells have been isolated from almost all types of tissue, including embryonic stem cells, somatic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The mechanisms of cells behavior have been fully studied. In combination with tissue engineering skills, stem cells have been investigated in a better environment by simulating the three-dimensional environment. However, the long-term safety and efficiency of stem cell-based outcomes should be further evaluated prior to any clinical application.