Regenerative medicine is a new concept of developing medicine. This field of science concerns reconstruction and repair of damaged tissues and organs. In physiological conditions, their integrity and functionality are ensured by the presence of adult stem cells that maintain and renew effectively all cell types. When there are injuries resulting from different causes, its essential to reconstitute the original structure and this represents the goal of regenerative medicine. The aim is to employ stem cells in clinic as cell therapy. For obtaining this result, its necessary to know the biology of stem cells and then its essential to have technologies useful to regenerate them in culture and allow their vitality. Today stem cells are a therapeutic reality: their potentiality helped in healing many kinds of diseases and restore the health of patients. With the progress of research and the development of new therapy protocols, it will be possible to expand stem cell therapy to different specialized areas of pathology.