Generic placeholder image

Current Analytical Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4110
ISSN (Online): 1875-6727

Research Article

Chemometrics and Thermal Analytical Investigation of Ancient Human Bones Through the Estimation of Activation Energy Values of Main Degradation Processes

Author(s): Alessandra Biancolillo, Mauro Tomassetti*, Remo Bucci, Federico Marini and Luigi Campanella

Volume 16 , Issue 5 , 2020

Page: [580 - 592] Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/1573411015666190724130118

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: The investigation of human bones unearthed from necropolises is a useful tool to enhance our knowledge about ancient cultures. In the present study, the possibility of using the activation energy (EA) values of thermogravimetric degradation processes coupled with exploratory analysis methods in order to investigate human remains, has been tested.

Methods: Several human bones from four distinct necropolises have been analyzed by thermogravimetry and then thirteen different approaches have been used to estimate their activation energy of the degradation processes of carbonate and collagen. The entire set of data has been analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to draw some preliminary considerations over the remains.

Results: PCA analysis highlighted the possibility of recognizing grouping tendencies related to the funeral ritual bodies underwent and/or their age. Additionally, in the second part of the work, where the focus is on the activation energies of collagen and carbonates degradation processes estimated by the method which was considered the most reliable (i.e., the Arrhenius formula with the third order decay), some tentative considerations about a trend in cremation temperatures are drawn.

Conclusion: The estimation of values from thermogravimetric signals combined with chemometrics is a useful tool for the investigation of bone samples, which allow obtaining additional info about trends and/or grouping tendencies in complex systems as human remains.

Keywords: Activation energies, ancient human bones, chemometrics, collagen degradation, PCA, thermo-gravimetry.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Rodriguez-Navarro, A.B.; Romanek, C.S.; Gaines, K.F.; Congdon, J. Quantitative analysis of bone mineral using FTIR. Proceedings from XXVI reuniòn (SEM) / XX reuniòn (SEA), , 45-47.2006
[2]
Grecu, R.; Coman, V.; Avram, V.; Băciuţ, M.; Băciuţ, G. Bone Matrices of Different Origins Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy. International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology, MediTech2007, 2007, pp. 429-432.
[3]
Paschalis, E.P.; Mendelsohn, R.; Boskey, A.L. Infrared assessment of bone quality: a review. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 2011, 469(8), 2170-2178.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-010-1751-4] [PMID: 21210314]
[4]
Stathopoulou, E.T.; Psycharis, V.; Chryssikos, G.D.; Gionis, V.; Theodorou, G. Bone diagenesis: New data from infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 2008, 266, 168-174.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.03.022]
[5]
Marini, F.; Tomassetti, M.; Vecchio, S. Detailed kinetic and chemometric study of the cellulose thermal breakdown in artificially aged and non aged commercial paper. Different methods for computing activation energy as an assessment model in archaeometric applications. Chem. Cent. J., 2012, 6(Suppl. 2), S7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-6-S2-S7] [PMID: 22594442]
[6]
Tomassetti, M.; Marini, F.; Bucci, R.; Campanella, L. A survey on innovative dating methods in archaeometry with focus on fossil bones. Trends Analyt. Chem., 2016, 79, 371-379.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2015.11.017]
[7]
Tomassetti, M.; Marini, F.; Bucci, R.; Coppa, A.; Campanella, L. Human fossil bones: Archaeometric classification using chemometrics and thermogravimetry. Influence of skeleton fossilization and its anatomical parts. Microchem. J., 2016, 124, 396-401.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2015.09.026]
[8]
Biancolillo, A.; Tomassetti, M.; Bucci, R.; Izzo, S.; Candilio, F.; Marini, F. Ancient human bones studied and compared by near infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and chemometrics. J. Near Infrared Spectrosc., 2019, 27, 6-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0967033518819417]
[9]
Tomassetti, M.; Marini, F.; Campanella, L.; Coppa, A. Study of modern or ancient collagen and human fossil bones from an archaeological site of middle Nile by thermal analysis and chemometrics. Microchem. J., 2013, 108, 7-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2012.11.006]
[10]
Rodante, F.; Vecchio, S.; Catalani, G.; Guidotti, M. Thermal analysis and non-isothermal kinetic study of some pesticides. Part II. Chlorinate derivates. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2000, 60, 605-622.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010159424733]
[11]
Satava, V. Mechanism and kinetic from non-isothermal TG traces. Thermochim. Acta, 1971, 2, 423-428.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(71)85018-9]
[12]
Wyden, H.; Widmann, G. Kinetic evaluation of TG measurements with multiple regression. Experentia. Supplementum. Angew. Chem. Thermodyn. Thermoanal, 1979, 37, 284-290.
[13]
Pearson, K. On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space. Philos. Mag., 1901, 2, 559-572.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786440109462720]
[14]
Wold, S.; Esbensen, K.; Geladi, P. Principal component analysis. Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 1987, 2, 37-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-7439(87)80084-9]
[15]
Jolliffe, I.T. Principal Component Analysis. In: Springer, 2nd ed;; Berlin, 2002.
[16]
Biancolillo, A.; Marini, F. Chemometric Methods for Spectroscopy-Based Pharmaceutical Analysis. Front Chem., 2018, 6, 576.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2018.00576] [PMID: 30519559]
[17]
Li Vigni, M.; Durante, C.; Cocchi, M. Exploratory Data Analysis.Chemometrics in food chemistry; Marini, F., Ed.; Elsevier: Oxford, UK, 2013, pp. 55-126.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-59528-7.00003-X]
[18]
Biancolillo, A.; Marini, F. Chapter Four - Chemometrics Applied to Plant Spectral Analysis. In: Vibrational Spectroscopy for Plant Varieties and Cultivars Characterization, Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry; Lopes, J.; Sousa, C., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, 2018; Vol. 80, pp. 69-104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.coac.2018.03.003]
[19]
Szoor, G. Fossil age determination by thermal analysis. J. Therm. Anal., 1982, 23, 83-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01908489]
[20]
Tomassetti, M.; Marini, F.; Campanella, L.; Coppa, A.; Coppa, A. Archaeometric classification of ancient human fossil bones, with particular attention to their carbonate content, using chemometrics, thermogravimetry and ICP emission. Chem. Cent. J., 2014, 8, 26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-8-26] [PMID: 24795778]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy