Background: Reverse İontophoresis (RI) is one of the promising non-invasive technologies. It relies on the transition of low magnitude current through the skin and thus glucose measurement becomes possible as it is extracted from the surface during this porter current flow.
Objective: This paper deals with the development and optimization of an RI determination method for glucose. CE dialysis membrane based artificial skin model was developed and the dependence of RI extraction on various experimental parameters was investigated.
Methods: Dependence of RI extraction performance on noble electrodes (platinum, silver, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium) was checked with CA, CV and DPV, in a wide pH and ionic strength range. Optimizations on inter-electrode distance, potential type and magnitude, extraction time, gel type, membrane MWCO, usage frequency, pretreatment, artificial body fluids were performed.
Results: According to the optimized results, the inter-electrode distance was 7.0 mm and silver was the optimum noble metal. Optimum pH and ionic strength were achieved with 0.05M PBS at pH 7.4. Higher glucose yields were obtained with DPV, while CA and CV achieved almost the same levels. During CA, +0.5V achieved the highest glucose yield and higher potential even caused a decrease. Glucose levels could be monitored for 24 hours. CMC gel was the optimum collection media. Pretreated CE membrane with 12kD MWCO was the artificial skin model. Pretreatment affected the yields while its condition caused no significant difference. Except PBS solution (simulated as artificial plasma), among the various artificial simulated body fluids, intestinal juice formulation (AI) and urine formulation U2 were the optimum extraction media, respectively.
Conclusion: In this study, various experimental parameters (pretereatment procedure, type and MWCO values of membranes, inter-electrode distance, electrode material, extraction medium solvents, ionic strength and pH, collection medium gel type, extraction potential type and magnitude, extraction time and etc) were optimized for the non-invasive RI determination of glucose in a CE dialysis membrane-based artificial skin model and various simulated artificial body fluids.
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