Generic placeholder image

Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1871-5249
ISSN (Online): 1875-6166

Case Report

The Role of Melanin to Dissociate Oxygen from Water to Treat Retinopathy of Prematurity

Author(s): Arturo S. Herrera, María del Carmen A. Esparza, Paola E.S. Arias, Ghulam M. Ashraf, Osama F. Mosa, Vladimir P. Fisenko, Susanna S. Sologova, Samira A. Dostdar, Alexander V. Sokolov, Elena V. Bovina, Vladimir N. Chubarev, Vadim V. Tarasov, Siva G. Somasundaram, Cecil E. Kirkland and Gjumrakch Aliev*

Volume 19 , Issue 3 , 2019

Page: [215 - 222] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1871524919666190702164206


Background: Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disorder that commonly afflicts premature infants who are born prior to 31weeks of gestation or with a body weight less than 1250 grams (about 2.75 pounds). Another risk factor is excessive oxygen in incubators, which can lead to blindness. A compounding factor is that survival rates for premature infants are rising with concomitantly more cases of ROP.

We have reported an unsuspected intrinsic property of melanin to dissociate water. This capability can be considered an alternative treatment option for adult and neonatal diseases. It is known that exogenous surfactant administration suppresses bronchopulmonary dysplasia and consequent death, randomized, controlled trials with various respiratory interventions did not show any significant reductions in morbidity and mortality rates.

During a descriptive study about the three leading causes of blindness in the world, the ability of melanin to transform light energy into chemical energy through the dissociation of water molecule was unraveled. Initially, during 2 or 3 years; we tried to link together our findings with the widely accepted metabolic pathways already described in molecular pathway databases, which have been developed to collect and organize the current knowledge on metabolism scattered across a multitude of scientific evidence.

Observations: The current report demonstrates the main problems that afflict premature babies with an emphasis on the growth of abnormal vessels in the retina, the explanation for which is unknown until date. We also reported a case of a baby who suffered digestive and respiratory problems with a brain haemorrhage that was successfully treated by laser photocoagulation. We hypothesise that most likely this effect was due to the melanin level and melanin itself produces oxygen via dissociating with water molecules.

Conclusion: We postulate that the intrinsic effect of melanin may easily convert visible and invisible light into chemical energy via a water dissociation reaction similar to the one in plant’s chlorophyll, and markedly elevated with diagnosis and treatment of the complications related to premature babies.

Keywords: Energy, hydrogen, melanin, oxygen and prematurity, retinal detachment, retinopatty.

Graphical Abstract
Baker, J.P. The incubator and the medical discovery of the premature infant. J. Perinatol., 2000, 20(5), 321-328.
[] [PMID: 10920793]
Philip, A.G. The evolution of neonatology. Pediatr. Res., 2005, 58(4), 799-815.
[] [PMID: 15718376]
Antonucci, R.; Porcella, A.; Fanos, V. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: Unresolved issues and future developments. J. Perinat. Med., 2009, 37(6), 587-598.
[] [PMID: 19591569]
Bauer, A. A combination resuscitator and incubator for new-born infants. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1937, 108(22), 1874-1874.
Dafoe, A.R. The survival of the Dionne quintuplets. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 1940, 39(1), 159-164.
Schreiner, R.L.; Brady, M.S.; Ernst, J.A.; Lemons, J.A. Lack of lactobezoars in infants given predominantly whey protein formulas. Am. J. Dis. Child., 1982, 136(5), 437-439.
Zimmerman, D.R.; Guttman, N. “Breast is best”: Knowledge among low-income mothers is not enough. J. Hum. Lact., 2001, 17(1), 14-19.
[] [PMID: 11847846]
Lucas, A.; Hudson, G.J. Preterm milk as a source of protein for low birth weight infants. Arch. Dis. Child., 1984, 59(9), 831-836.
[] [PMID: 6541463]
McClure, R.J. Trophic feeding of the preterm infant. Acta Paediatr. Suppl., 2001, 90(436), 19-21.
[] [PMID: 11332950]
Bisquera, J.A.; Cooper, T.R.; Berseth, C.L. Impact of necrotizing enterocolitis on length of stay and hospital charges in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics, 2002, 109(3), 423-428.
[] [PMID: 11875136]
Papile, L.A.; Burstein, J.; Burstein, R.; Koffler, H. Incidence and evolution of subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage: A study of infants with birth weights less than 1,500 gm. J. Pediatr., 1978, 92(4), 529-534.
[] [PMID: 305471]
Silverman, W.A. Retrolental fibroplasia: A modern parable; Grune and Stratton: New York, 1980.
Jacobson, R.M.; Feinstein, A.R. Oxygen as a cause of blindness in premature infants: “autopsy” of a decade of errors in clinical epidemiologic research. J. Clin. Epidemiol., 1992, 45(11), 1265-1287.
[] [PMID: 1432008]
Saugstad, O.D. Update on oxygen radical disease in neonatology. Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol., 2001, 13(2), 147-153.
[] [PMID: 11315869]
Nelson, K.B. Can we prevent cerebral palsy? N. Engl. J. Med., 2003, 349(18), 1765-1769.
[] [PMID: 14585946]
Brann, A.W., Jr; Myers, R.E. Central nervous system findings in the newborn monkey following severe in utero partial asphyxia. Neurology, 1975, 25(4), 327-338.
[] [PMID: 235749]
Battin, M.R.; Penrice, J.; Gunn, T.R.; Gunn, A.J. Treatment of term infants with head cooling and mild systemic hypothermia (35.0 degrees C and 34.5 degrees C) after perinatal asphyxia. Pediatrics, 2003, 111(2), 244-251.
[] [PMID: 12563046]
Plafki, C.; Peters, P.; Almeling, M.; Welslau, W.; Busch, R. Complications and side effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 2000, 71(2), 119-124.
[PMID: 10685584]
Walsh, B.K.; Czervinske, M.P.; DiBlasi, R.M. Perinatal and Pediatric Respiratory Care, 3rd ed; Elsevier: Amsterdam, 2013.
Tin, W.; Milligan, D.W.; Pennefather, P.; Hey, E. Pulse oximetry, severe retinopathy, and outcome at one year in babies of less than 28 weeks gestation. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonat. Ed., 2001, 84(2), F106-F110.
[] [PMID: 11207226]
Saugstad, O.D.; Aune, D. In search of the optimal oxygen saturation for extremely low birth weight infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neonatology, 2011, 100(1), 1-8.
[] [PMID: 21150224]
Haynes, R.L.; Folkerth, R.D.; Keefe, R.J.; Sung, I.; Swzeda, L.I.; Rosenberg, P.A.; Volpe, J.J.; Kinney, H.C. Nitrosative and oxidative injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes in periventricular leukomalacia. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 2003, 62(5), 441-450.
[] [PMID: 12769184]
Collins, M.P.; Lorenz, J.M.; Jetton, J.R.; Paneth, N. Hypocapnia and other ventilation-related risk factors for cerebral palsy in low birth weight infants. Pediatr. Res., 2001, 50(6), 712-719.
[] [PMID: 11726729]
Finer, N.N.; Carlo, W.A.; Walsh, M.C.; Rich, W.; Gantz, M.G.; Laptook, A.R.; Yoder, B.A.; Faix, R.G.; Das, A.; Poole, W.K.; Donovan, E.F.; Newman, N.S.; Ambalavanan, N.; Frantz, I.D., III; Buchter, S.; Sánchez, P.J.; Kennedy, K.A.; Laroia, N.; Poindexter, B.B.; Cotten, C.M.; Van Meurs, K.P.; Duara, S.; Narendran, V.; Sood, B.G.; O’Shea, T.M.; Bell, E.F.; Bhandari, V.; Watterberg, K.L.; Higgins, R.D. Early CPAP versus surfactant in extremely preterm infants. N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 362(21), 1970-1979.
[] [PMID: 20472939]
Stevenson, J.K.; Oliver, T.K., Jr; Graham, C.B.; Bell, R.S.; Gould, V.E. Aggressive treatment of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: 38 patients with 25 survivors. J. Pediatr. Surg., 1971, 6(1), 28-35.
[] [PMID: 5552891]
Smith, L.E. Pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr. Suppl., 2002, 91(437), 26-28.
[] [PMID: 12200894]
Zhang, W.; Ito, Y.; Berlin, E.; Roberts, R.; Berkowitz, B.A. Role of hypoxia during normal retinal vessel development and in experimental retinopathy of prematurity. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2003, 44(7), 3119-3123.
[] [PMID: 12824260]
Pournaras, C.J. Retinal oxygen distribution. Its role in the physiopathology of vasoproliferative microangiopathies. Retina, 1995, 15(4), 332-347.
Arjamaa, O.; Nikinmaa, M. Oxygen-dependent diseases in the retina: Role of hypoxia-inducible factors. Exp. Eye Res., 2006, 83(3), 473-483.
[] [PMID: 16750526]
del Carmen Arias-Esparza, M.; Arias, R.I.; Arias, P.E.S.; Arias, M.P.S.; Solis-Herrera, A. The Unexpected capability of melanin to split the water molecule and the Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosci. Med., 2011, 2(03), 217.
Herrera, A.S.; Del, CA Esparza, M.; Md Ashraf, G.; Zamyatnin, A.A.; Aliev, G. Beyond mitochondria, what would be the energy source of the cell? Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem., 2015, 15(1), 32-41.
[] [PMID: 25645910]
Solís-Herrera, A.; Ashraf, G.M. del C A Esparza, M.; Arias, R.I.; Bachurin, S.O.; Barreto, G.E.; Aliev, G. Biological activities of QIAPI 1 as a melanin precursor and its therapeutic effects in wistar rats exposed to arsenic poisoning. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem., 2015, 15(2), 99-108.
[] [PMID: 25909193]
Herrera, A. S. Melanin, Energy and the Cell. Diabetes Obes. Int. J., 2017, 2(S1), 000S1-004.
Herrera, A.S.; Solis Arias, P.E. Einstein cosmological constant, the cell, and the intrinsic property of melanin to split and re-form the water molecule. MOJ Cell. Sci. Report, 2014, 1(2), 00011.
Herrera, A.S. MOJ Cell. Sci. Rep., 2014, 2(3), 00031.
Herrera, A.S. The biological pigments in plants physiology. Agric. Sci., 2015, 6(10), 1262.
Vaucher, Y.E.; Peralta-Carcelen, M.; Finer, N.N.; Carlo, W.A.; Gantz, M.G.; Walsh, M.C.; Laptook, A.R.; Yoder, B.A.; Faix, R.G.; Das, A.; Schibler, K.; Rich, W.; Newman, N.S.; Vohr, B.R.; Yolton, K.; Heyne, R.J.; Wilson-Costello, D.E.; Evans, P.W.; Goldstein, R.F.; Acarregui, M.J.; Adams-Chapman, I.; Pappas, A.; Hintz, S.R.; Poindexter, B.; Dusick, A.M.; McGowan, E.C.; Ehrenkranz, R.A.; Bodnar, A.; Bauer, C.R.; Fuller, J.; O’Shea, T.M.; Myers, G.J.; Higgins, R.D. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in the early CPAP and pulse oximetry trial. N. Engl. J. Med., 2012, 367(26), 2495-2504.
[] [PMID: 23268664]
Hardarson, S.H.; Harris, A.; Karlsson, R.A.; Halldorsson, G.H.; Kagemann, L.; Rechtman, E.; Zoega, G.M.; Eysteinsson, T.; Benediktsson, J.A.; Thorsteinsson, A.; Jensen, P.K.; Beach, J.; Stefánsson, E. Automatic retinal oximetry. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2006, 47(11), 5011-5016.
[] [PMID: 17065521]
Saunders, R.A.; Donahue, M.L.; Christmann, L.M.; Pakalnis, A.V.; Tung, B.; Hardy, R.J.; Phelps, D.L. Racial variation in retinopathy of prematurity. Arch. Ophthalmol., 1997, 115(5), 604-608.
[] [PMID: 9152127]
Herrera, A.S. Photoelectrochemical method of separating water into hydrogen and oxygen, using melanins or the analogues, precursors or derivatives thereof as the central electrolysing element U.S. Patent US EP1900850A1, March 19, 2008.
Herrera, A.S.; Ashraf, G.M.; Del Carmen Arias Esparza, M.; Tarasov, V.V.; Chubarev, V.N.; Avila-Rodriguez, M.F.; Makhmutova, A.; Ganash, M.; Mosa, O.F.; Hafeez, A.; Bachurin, S.O.; Aliev, G. Cerebrospinal fluid, brain electrolytes balance, and the unsuspected intrinsic property of melanin to dissociate the water molecule. CNS Neurol. Disord. Drug Targets, 2018, 17(10), 743-756.
[] [PMID: 30179148]

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy