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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Research Article

Comparative Drug Resistance Reversal Potential of Natural Glycosides: Potential of Synergy Niaziridin & Niazirin

Author(s): Gaurav R. Dwivedi, Anupam Maurya, Dharmendra K. Yadav, Feroz Khan, Mahendra K. Gupta, Prashant Gupta, Mahendra P. Darokar* and Santosh K. Srivastava*

Volume 19, Issue 10, 2019

Page: [847 - 860] Pages: 14

DOI: 10.2174/1568026619666190412120008

Price: $65


Background: Due to the limited availability of antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) acquire different levels of drug resistance. It raised an urgent need to identify such agents, which can reverse the phenomenon of drug resistance.

Objective: To understand the mechanism of drug resistance reversal of glycosides; niaziridin and niazirin isolated from the pods of Moringa oleifera and ouabain (control) against the clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli.

Methods: The MICs were determined following the CLSI guidelines for broth micro-dilution. In-vitro combination studies were performed by broth checkerboard method followed by Time-Kill studies, the efflux pump inhibition assay, ATPase inhibitory activity, mutation prevention concentration and in-silico studies.

Results: The results showed that both glycosides did not possess antibacterial activity of their own, but in combination, they reduced the MIC of tetracycline up to 16 folds. Both were found to inhibit efflux pumps, but niaziridin was the best. In real time expression pattern analysis, niaziridin was also found responsible for the down expression of the two important efflux pump acrB & yojI genes alone as well as in combination. Niaziridin was also able to over express the porin forming genes (ompA & ompX). These glycosides decreased the mutation prevention concentration of tetracycline.

Conclusion: This is the first ever report on glycosides, niazirin and niaziridin acting as drug resistance reversal agent through efflux pump inhibition and modulation of expression pattern drug resistant genes. This study may be helpful in preparing an effective antibacterial combination against the drug-resistant GNB from a widely growing Moringa oleifera.

Keywords: MDR, Glycosides, Niaziridin, Niazirin, Antibacterial combinations, Drug resistance.

Graphical Abstract
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