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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Methotrexate Disposition in Pediatric Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: What Have We Learnt From the Genetic Variants of Drug Transporters

Author(s): Ya-Hui Hu, Lin Zhou, Shan-Shan Wang, Xia Jing, Hong-Li Guo, Fang Sun, Yong Zhang, Feng Chen, Jing Xu* and Xing Ji*

Volume 25, Issue 6, 2019

Page: [627 - 634] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190329141003

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the leading chemotherapeutic agents with the bestdemonstrated efficacies against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Due to the narrow therapeutic range, significant inter- and intra-patient variabilities of MTX, non-effectiveness and/or toxicity occur abruptly to cause chemotherapeutic interruption or discontinuation. The relationship between clinical outcome and the systemic concentration of MTX has been well established, making the monitoring of plasma MTX levels critical in the treatment of ALL. Besides metabolizing enzymes, multiple transporters are also involved in determining the intracellular drug levels. In this mini-review, we focused on the genetic polymorphisms of MTX-disposition related transporters and the potential association between the discussed genetic variants and MTX pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and toxicity in the context of MTX treatment.

Methods: We searched PubMed for citations published in English using the terms “methotrexate”, “transporter”, “acute lymphoblastic leukemia”, “polymorphisms”, and “therapeutic drug monitoring”. The retrieval papers were critically reviewed and summarized according to the aims of this mini-review.

Results: Solute carrier (SLC) transporters (SLC19A1, SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1, and SLC22A8) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCC5, and ABCG2) mediate MTX disposition. Of note, the influences of polymorphisms of SLC19A1, SLCO1B1 and ABCB1 genes on the clinical outcome of MTX have been extensively studied.

Conclusion: Overall, the data critically reviewed in this mini-review article confirmed that polymorphisms in the genes encoding SLC and ABC transporters confer higher sensitivity to altered plasma levels, MTX-induced toxicity, and therapeutic response in pediatric patients with ALL. Pre-emptive determination may be helpful in individualizing treatment.

Keywords: Methotrexate, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, SLC transporters, ABC transporters, polymorphism, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacokinetics.

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