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Current Organocatalysis


ISSN (Print): 2213-3372
ISSN (Online): 2213-3380

Research Article

Synthesis of 1,2-Diamine Bifunctional Catalysts for the Direct Aldol Reaction Through Probing the Remote Amide Hydrogen

Author(s): Rajasekhar Dodda, Sampak Samanta, Matthew Su and John Cong-Gui Zhao*

Volume 6, Issue 2, 2019

Page: [171 - 176] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/2213337206666190301155247


Background: While proline can catalyze the asymmetric direct aldol reactions, its catalytic activity and catalyst turnover are both low. To improve the catalytic efficiency, many prolinebased organocatalysts have been developed. In this regard, prolinamide-based bifunctional catalysts have been demonstrated by us and others to be highly efficient catalysts for the direct aldol reactions.

Results: Using the β-acetamido- and β-tosylamidoprolinamide catalysts, the highly enantio- and diastereoselective direct aldol reactions between enolizable ketones and aldehydes were achieved (up to >99% ee, 98:2 dr). A low catalyst loading of only 2-5 mol % of the β-tosylamidoprolinamide catalyst was needed to obtain the desired aldol products in good to high yields and high stereoselectivities.

Methods: By carefully adjusting the hydrogen bonding ability of the remote β-amide hydrogen of the 1,2-diamine-based prolinamide bifunctional catalysts, the catalytic activity and the asymmetric induction of these catalysts were significantly improved for the direct aldol reaction between aldehydes and enolizable ketones.

Conclusion: Some highly efficient 1,2-diamine-based bifunctional prolinamide catalysts have been developed through probing the remote β-amide hydrogen for its hydrogen bonding capability. These catalysts are easy to synthesize and high enantioselectivities may be achieved at very low catalyst loadings.

Keywords: Aldol, amide, asymmetric, bifunctional, catalysis, hydrogen bonding, proline.

Graphical Abstract
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