Generic placeholder image

Recent Advances in Computer Science and Communications


ISSN (Print): 2666-2558
ISSN (Online): 2666-2566

Research Article

An Intelligent Resource Manager Over Terrorism Knowledge Base

Author(s): Archana Patel*, Abhisek Sharma and Sarika Jain

Volume 13, Issue 3, 2020

Page: [394 - 405] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/2213275912666190111152321

Price: $65


The complex and chaotic crisis created by terrorism demands for situation awareness which is possible with the proposed Indian Terrorism Knowledge Treasure (ITKT).

Objective: This work is an effort at creating the largest comprehensive knowledge base of terrorism and related activities, people and agencies involved, and extremist movements; and providing a platform to the society, the government and the military personnel in order to combat the evolving threat of the global menace terrorism.

Methods: For representing knowledge of the domain semantically, an ontology has been used in order to better integrate data and information from multiple heterogeneous sources. An Indian Terrorism Knowledge Base is created consisting of information about past terrorist attacks, actions taken at time of those attacks, available resources and more. An Indian Terrorism Resource Manager is conceived comprising of various use cases catering to searching a specified keyword for its description, navigating the complete knowledge base of Indian Terrorism and finding any answers to any type of queries pertaining to terrorism.

Results: The managerial implications of this work are two-fold. All the involved parties, i.e., the government officials, military, police, emergency personnel, fire department, NGOs, media, public etc will be better informed in case of emergency and will be able to communicate with each other; hence improving situation awareness and providing decision support.

Keywords: Resource manager, knowledge base, knowledge treasure, question answering, ontology, visualization.

Graphical Abstract
P.M. Kamath, "Terrorism in India: Impact on national security", J. Strat. Anal., Taylor and Francis, vol. 25, pp. 1081-1987, 2001.
Report of global peace index-2018 Available from:, http://
R. Clarke, "Lashkar-i-taiba: The fallacy of subservient proxies and the future of islamist terrorism in india", In: Crime-Terror Nexus in South Asia, pp. 74-119. 2011.
Annual Report of Ministry of Home Affairs Government of India 2017-18 Available from:, 20OF%20HOME%20AFFAIR%20AR%202017- 18%20FOR%20WEB.pdf
Global Terrorism Database Available from:, https://www.
RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents Available from:,
MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base Available from:, https://www.
C. Martinez-Cruz, I.J. Blanco, and M.A. Vila, "Ontologies versus relational databases: Are they so different? A comparison", Artif. Intell. Rev., vol. 38, pp. 271-290, 2012.
P. Hitzler, M. Krotzsch, and S. Rudolph, Foundations of semantic web technologies., 1st ed Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2009.
J. Davies, R. Studer, and P. Warren, Semantic Web technologies: trends and research in ontology-based systems., 1st ed John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
X. Wang, R. Gorlitsky, and J.S. Almeida, "From XML to RDF: how semantic web technologies will change the design of’omic’standards", Nat. Biotechnol., vol. 23, pp. 1099-1103, 2005.
J. Domingue, D. Fensel, and J.A. Hendler, Handbook of semantic web technologies.Springer Science & Business Media, .Vol. 1, 2011.
H.L. Kim, H.G. Kim, and S. Decker, "Semantic documentation using semantic web technologies and social web services", Next Generation Web Services Practices, pp. 27-32, 2006.
South Asia Terrorism Portal Available from:,
Esri Terrorist attack Available from:, stories/terrorist-attacks/
I. Kollia, B. Glimm, and I. Horrocks, "SPARQL query answering over OWL ontologies", In: Extended Semantic Web Conference, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 382-396. 2011.
O. Hartig, C. Bizer, and J.C. Freytag, "Executing SPARQL queries over the web of linked data", In: International Semantic Web Conference, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 293-309. 2009.
S. Abburu, and S.B. Golla, "Ontology storage models and tools: An authentic survey", J. Intel. Sys., vol. 25, pp. 539-553, 2016.
C. Nédellec, and A. Nazarenko, "Ontology and Information Extraction: A Necessary Symbiosis", In: Ontology Learning from Text: Methods, Evaluation and Applications., IOS Press Publication, 2005.
X. Li, T. Qiu, Q. Liu, and X. Bai, "Ontology building from incomplete information system based on granular computing", International Conference on Granular Computing, IEEE, 2010.
N. Drummond, and R. Shearer, "The open world assumption", In: eSI Workshop: The Closed World of Databases meets the Open World of the Semantic Web, vol. 15. 2006.
G. Antoniou, and F.V. Harmelen, "Web ontology language: OWL", In: Handbook on ontologies., Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 91-110. 2009.
E. Sirin, B. Parsia, B.C. Grau, A. Kalyanpur, and Y. Katz, "Pellet: A practical owl-dl reasoned", Web Semantics: Science, services and agents on the World Wide Web, vol. 5, pp. 51-53, 2007.
R. Jackson, "The Study of Terrorism: A New Approach"Arch. Quarterly, vol. 4. 6th ed pp. 92-95. 2010.
G. LaFree, "The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) Accomplishments and Challenges", Perspect. Terror., vol. 4, pp. 24-46, 2010.
Annual Report of Global Terrorism Index- 2017 Available from:,
Annual report of Patterns of Global Terrorism-2016 Available from:,
R. Kiran, "India’s War on Terrorism and International Cooperation", Society for the Study of Peace and Conflict, 2017.
C. Deaton, B. Shepard, C. Klein, C. Mayans, B. Summers, A. Brusseau, W. Michael, and D. Lenat, "The comprehensive terrorism knowledge base in cyc", International Conference on Intelligence Analysis, 2005.
J. Wilkerson, T. Wang, H. Chen, and R.P. Schumaker, "Terror tracker system: a web portal for terrorism research", 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, p. 416, 2005.
N. Toppo, "Nature of terrorism in india: Islamic extremism and terrorism", International Conference On Lastest Innovation In Arts, Social Science & Humanities, 2017.
J. Wigle, "Introducing the worldwide incidents tracking system (WITS)", Perspect. Terror., vol. 4, pp. 3-23, 2010.
B. Schuurman, "Research on Terrorism, 2007–2016: A Review of Data, Methods, and Authorship"Terror. Politic. Viol, Taylor and Francis, pp. 1-16. 2018.
F. Ding, Q. Ge, D. Jiang, J. Fu, and M. Hao, "Understanding the dynamics of terrorism events with multiple-discipline datasets and machine learning approach", PLoS One, vol. 12, . e0179057 2017.
A. Khan, M.A.R. Estrada, and Z. Yusof, "Terrorism and India: An economic perspective", Qual. Quant., vol. 50, pp. 1833-1844, 2016.
D. Knoke, "Emerging trends in social network analysis of terrorism and counterterrorism", Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource, pp. 1-15, 2015.
E. Gilbert, "Victim compensation for acts of terrorism and the limits of the state", Critical Studies on Terrorism, Taylor and Francis, vol. 11, pp. 199-218, 2018.
M. Guruswamy, and Z.D. Singh, India China relations: the border issue and beyond., Viva Books, 2009.
National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS) Available from:,
S. Ressler, "Social network analysis as an approach to combat terrorism: Past, present, and future research", Homel. Secur. Aff., vol. 2, 2006.
E. Reid, J. Qin, W. Chung, J. Xu, Y. Zhou, R. Schumaker, S. Marc, and H. Chen, "Terrorism knowledge discovery project: A knowledge discovery approach to addressing the threats of terrorism"In International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 125-145. 2004.
Victims of Terrorism Support Portal Available from:,
Israeli Security Agency - Terrorism portal Available from:,
Terrorism and Extremist Violence in the United States (TEVUS) portal Available from:,
B.K. Houghton, "Terrorism Knowledge Base: A Eulogy (2004-2008)", Persp. Terror., vol. 2, 2010.
T. Tudorache, N.F. Noy, S. Tu, and M.A. Musen, "Supporting collaborative ontology development in Protégé", In: International Semantic Web Conference, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 17-32. 2008.
N.F. Noy, M. Crubézy, R.W. Fergerson, H. Knublauch, S.W. Tu, J. Vendetti, and M.A. Musen, "Protégé-2000: An open-source ontology- development and knowledge-acquisition environment", In: Annual Symposium proceedings, AMIA Symposium, American Medical Informatics Association, Vol. 2003, pp. 953-953. 2003.
H. Knublauch, R.W. Fergerson, N.F. Noy, and M.A. Musen, "The Protégé OWL plugin: An open development environment for semantic web applications", In: International Semantic Web Conference, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 229-243. 2004.
V. Jain, and M. Singh, "Ontology development and query retrieval using protégé tool", Int. J. Intel. Sys. Appl., pp. 67-75, 2013.
M.R. Khondoker, and P. Mueller, ""Comparing ontology development tools based on an online survey"", World Cong. Eng London 2010.
S. Jain, "“Intelligent Decision Support for Unconventional Emergencies”, In Exploring Intelligent", Decis. Support Syst., pp. 199-219, 2018.
S. Jain, C. Gupta, and A. Bhardwaj, "Research directions under the parasol of ontology based semantic web structure", In: International Conference on Soft Computing and Pattern Recognition, pp. 644-655. December 2016.
A. Patel, and S. Jain, "Formalisms of Representing Knowledge", Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 125, pp. 542-549, 2018.
D.L. McGuinness, and F.V. Harmelen, "OWL web ontology language overview", W3C Recommend, vol. 10, 2004.
N.F. Noy, and D.L. McGuinness, "Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology", 2001.
N. Guarino, D. Oberle, and S. Staab, "What is an ontology?", In: Handbook on ontologies., Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 1-17. 2009.
S. Staab, and R. Studer, Handbook on ontologies., Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.
C. Martinez-Cruz, I.J. Blanco, and M.A. Vila, "Ontologies versus relational databases: Are they so different? A comparison", Artif. Intell. Rev., vol. 38, pp. 271-290, 2012.
H. Hlomani, and D. Stacey, "Approaches, methods, metrics, measures, and subjectivity in ontology evaluation: A survey", Semantic Web J., vol. 1, pp. 1-11, 2014.
A. Lozano-Tello, and A. Gómez-Pérez, "Ontometric: A method to choose the appropriate ontology", J. Database Manag. (JDM), vol. 15, pp. 1-18, 2004.
S. Tartir, I.B. Arpinar, M. Moore, A.P. Sheth, and B. Aleman-Meza, "OntoQA: Metric-based ontology quality analysis", 2005.
S. Tartir, and I.B. Arpinar, "Ontology evaluation and ranking using OntoQA", In: International Conference on Semantic Computing, pp. 185-192. 2007.
B. Lantow, "OntoMetrics: Application of on-line ontology metric calculation", In: BIR Workshops, 2016.
B. Lantow, "Onto metrics: Putting metrics into use for ontology evaluation", In: KEOD, pp. 186-191. 2016.
M. Poveda-Villalón, A. Gómez-Pérez, and M.C. Suárez-Figueroa, "Oops! (ontology pitfall scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation", Int. J. Semantic Web Inf. Sys. (IJSWIS), vol. 10, pp. 7-34, 2014.
M. Poveda-Villalón, M.C. Suárez-Figueroa, and A. Gómez-Pérez, "Validating ontologies with oops!", In: International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 267-281. 2012.
A. Gómez-Pérez, "Did You Validate Your Ontology? OOPS!" The Semantic Web: ESWC 2012 Satellite Events: ESWC 2012 Satellite Events Heraklion, Crete: Greece, . 2015.
C.M. Keet, M.C. Suárez-Figueroa, and M. Poveda-Villalón, "The current landscape of pitfalls in ontologies", 2013.
M.C. Suarez-Figueroa, M. Kamel, and M. Poveda-Villalon, "Benefits of natural language techniques in ontology evaluation: The OOPS! Case", 2013.
S. Mishra, and S. Jain, "Towards a semantic knowledge treasure for military intelligence"Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Technologies in Data Mining and Information Security (IEMIS 2018), Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (AISC) Springer Cham, . 2018.
S. Jain, and V. Meyer, "Evaluation and refinement of emergency situation ontology", Int. J. Inf. Educ. Technol., vol. 8, pp. 713-719, 2018.
A. Patel, and S. Jain, "A Partition based framework for large scale ontology matching", Recent Pat. on Eng., 2019.
A. Patel, and S. Jain, "Present and future of semantic web technologies: A research statements"Int. J. Comput. Appl. Talyor and Francis, . 2019.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy