Role of Shp2: The dysregulation of cell signaling cascades associated with the cell differentiation and growth, due to the deletion, insertion or point mutation in specific amino acids which alters the intrinsic conformation of the protein, can ultimately lead to a fatal cancer disease. The protein tyrosine phosphatase has been recognized as a key regulator of extracellular stimuli such as cytokine receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. In the last era, the PTPN11 gene (encode a Shp2 protein) and its association with acute myeloid, juvenile myelomonocytic, and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Noonan syndrome, and myelodysplastic have been recognized as the cause of such deadly disease due to the occurrence of germline mutations in the interface of PTP and SH2 domain.
Conclusion: The current study was designed to focus on the allosteric regulation (autoinhibition) of the of Shp2 protein. Subsequently, it will cover the last 10-year recap of Shp2 protein, their role in cancer, and regulation in numerous ways (allosteric regulation).