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Current Clinical Pharmacology


ISSN (Print): 1574-8847
ISSN (Online): 2212-3938

Review Article

Efficacy of Zofenopril Alone or in Combination with Hydrochlorothiazide in Patients with Kidney Dysfunction

Author(s): Stefano Omboni* and Claudio Borghi

Volume 14, Issue 1, 2019

Page: [5 - 15] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1574884713666181025145404


Hypertension and kidney disease often coexist, further increasing the risk of future cardiovascular events. Treatment of hypertensive adults with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in case of concomitant kidney disease may slow disease progression. The third-generation liphophilic angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor zofenopril, administered alone or combined with a thiazide diuretic, has proved to be effective in lowering blood pressure in hypertensive patients and to reduce the risk of fatal and non-fatal events in post-acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. In almost three-hundred hypertensive patients with kidney impairment zofenopril administered for 12 weeks showed a similar blood pressure-lowering effect irrespective of the stage of the disease, with larger effects in combination with a thiazide diuretic, particularly in patients with slightly or moderately impaired kidney function. In animal models, zofenopril produced a significant and long-lasting inhibition of kidney angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and prevented kidney morphological and functional alterations following kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. Treatment of hypertensive patients for 18 weeks with a combination of zofenopril 30 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg resulted in a reduction in albumin creatinine ratio of 8.4 mg/g (49.6% reduction from baseline values) and no changes in glomerular filtration rate, variations in line with those obtained in the control group treated with a combination of irbesartan 150 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg. Thus, some preliminary evidence exists to support that relatively long-term treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor zofenopril alone or combined with hydrochlorothiazide is effective in controlling blood pressure and may confer some kidney protection due to ACE inhibition properties.

Keywords: Arterial hypertension, kidney dysfunction, chronic kidney disease, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, zofenopril, hydrochlorothiazide.

Graphical Abstract
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