Generic placeholder image

Current Clinical Pharmacology


ISSN (Print): 1574-8847
ISSN (Online): 2212-3938

Review Article

A Critique of Computer Simulation Software’s Used in Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Analysis

Author(s): Vivek Dave*, Renu Bala Yadav, Sachdev Yadav, Swapnil Sharma, Ram Kumar Sahu and Ayodeji Folorunsho Ajayi

Volume 13, Issue 4, 2018

Page: [216 - 235] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/1574884713666181025144845

Price: $65


Background: In the pharmaceutical sectors, the computer plays a crucial role as a commander of all the theoretical aspects and provides a workbench to improve the overall quality of pharmaceutical research and development. The aim of this article is to provide a computational approach to the development of numerous technology of computer software in the field of clinical pharmacokinetics. The computational technique practised by clinical pharmacist and scientist with the applied knowledge and skills in dealing with clinical pharmacokinetics problems can be applied in routine clinical practices.

Methods: To solve the various complicated pharmacokinetic equations and modeling of pharmacokinetic processes, various software were used like Population pharmacokinetics, Individual pharmacokinetics, Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) pharmacokinetics, in - silico pharmacokinetics like Window-Based Non-linear model fitting (WinNonlin), Statistical Analysis Software (SAS), Non-linear Mixed Effects Modelling (NONMEM), PK Solution etc.

Results: Various software’s which was described in this paper help in the development of experimental study designs, statistical treatment of data and various simulation studies, etc. A robust software solution should be easy to use and address the three main parts of the PK-PD workflow like data management, analysis, and reporting. PK-PD software’s allow researchers to predict ADME properties of new drug entity. For the study of the pharmacokinetic, the best software is WINBUGS where there is no limitation of dimensional array and size of the problem. The best software to be used for individual pharmacokinetics is T.D.M.S in which, we can apply Bayesian and least square method for curve fitting and it can be used for both linear and non-linear pharmacokinetic data.

Conclusion: Various software were discussed here. This software not only help in knowing the history of the software but also help in gaining more knowledge about pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics simulation. Different software such as population pharmacokinetic, individual pharmacokinetic and others discussed in this article will help in the reporting and analyzing of data. The important points to be considered while selecting the software is also discussed which will help in easy accessing of software.

Keywords: Population pharmacokinetics, individual pharmacokinetics, ADME pharmacokinetics, in-silico pharmacokinetics, WINBUGS, NONMEM.

Graphical Abstract

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy