Generic placeholder image

Current Drug Research Reviews


ISSN (Print): 2589-9775
ISSN (Online): 2589-9783

Research Article

Updated Indicators to Evaluate Harmful Drug Use, in Particular, Poly-Drug Use

Author(s): Emanuela Colasante, Francesco Fabi, Carla Rossi, Gianpaolo S. Tomba and Sabrina Molinaro*

Volume 11, Issue 1, 2019

Page: [51 - 57] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1874473711666180924155231


Background: Drug use indicators that are capable of measuring the individual levels of harm following drug use, and in particular, poly-drug use, have previously been proposed, based on individual drug and frequency of use data and expert rankings of harms related to various substances. These indicators allow the estimation of risk profiles for selected groups of individuals and comparisons, both over time and between populations. Recent advances regarding the ranking of drug use harms allow a refinement of these indicators, separating the effects on self and others.

Objective: To define updated indicators and compare their performance to previous ones on datasets related to the Italian ESPAD longitudinal data.

Methods: Two new scores, based respectively on the Harm to self and Harm to others substance scores, are defined. These scores follow the same logic as the previous poly-drug score (PDS), but now using the new Harm to self and Harm to others scores as weights, both in the individual calculations and in the calculation of the two normalizing factors.

Results: The new harm-to-self drug use indicator is shown to correlate strongly with the previous poly-drug use indicator; and the Harm to others indicator, is introduced and commented upon. Using further ESPAD survey information related to personal behaviour, it is shown that high values of poly-drug use indicators are linked to specific behaviours related to interest in school, relationship with parents and use of leisure time. These results are consistent with previous analyses based on surveys among high school students in Italy.

Keywords: Polydrug use, summary drug use indicators, Italian ESPAD data, harm to self, harm to others, risk profiles.

Graphical Abstract
European Drug Report 2017. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon 2017.
Mammone A, Fabi F, Colasante E, et al. New indicators to evaluate and to compare harmful drug use among adolescents in 38 European countries. Nord Alkohol- Narkotikatidskrift 2014; 31: 243-58.
Francesco Fabi, Alessia Mammone, Carla Rossi. Carla. New indicators of illegal drug use to compare drug user populations for policy evaluation Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health 2014; 11-2, 8891-1/8891-7.
van Amsterdam J, Opperhuizen A, Koeter M, van den Brink W. Ranking the harm of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs for the individual and the population. Eur Addict Res 2010; 16(4): 202-7.
Brian S Everitt & Graham Dunn. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons 2001.
Ventura E, Wagner H, Rossi C. New indicators of health among adolescent drug users and evaluation of drug policies comparing countries Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health 2015; 12- 1(suppl.1).
van Amsterdam J, Nutt D, Phillips L, van den Brink W. European rating of drug harms. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford) 2015; 29(6): 655-60.
Di Censi L, Esposito N, Fabi F. Evoluzione del mercato illegale delle sostanze stupefacenti e psicotropeMarsilio editori. Venezia 2011.
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs is dedicated to the ESPAD Study 2014; 31(4).

© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy