Amelogenins are enamel matrix proteins that play crucial roles in enamel formation. Previous studies have indicated that amelogenin and amelogenin C-terminal peptides have cell-signaling functions. Recently, adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have received attention as a potential source of stem cells for use in regeneration therapy. In this study, we examined the effects of human full-length amelogenin (rh174) and amelogenin C-terminal peptide (amgCP) on the proliferation of ADSCs. ADSCs were cultured in the presence of amgCP or rh174. Cell proliferation was analyzed using BrdU immunoassay and MTS assay. Cell migration was evaluated by ELISA. The MAPK-ERK pathway was examined by phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204) sandwich ELISA and western blotting. A specific MAPK inhibitor, U0126, was used to block ERK activity. ADSC proliferation and migration were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the presence of rh174 or amgCP compared to non-treated control cells. The increased proliferation of ADSCs induced by rh174 or amgCP was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited in the presence of 2 µg/ml U0126. The pERK/tERK ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) increased upon treatment with rh174 or amgCP compared to non-treated ADSCs, while this increase was significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed by the addition of U0126. Similar results were found by western blot analysis. In conclusion, amgCP and rh174 increase ADSC proliferation via the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway, and ADSCs may be useful for tissue regeneration in the orofacial region.