Repair of tooth-supporting structures destroyed by the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis is a major goal of oral therapy. The field of tissue engineering combines materials science and biology to repair tissues and organs. Periodontal tissue engineering has been achieved with limited success by the utilization of guiding tissue (cell occlusive) membranes and bone grafting techniques. Over the past decade investigators have begun to utilize signaling molecules such as growth factors to restore lost tooth support due to periodontitis, the most common bone disease affecting humans. This review will provide information on the status of growth factor therapies being applied in periodontology to treat advanced alveolar bone loss.