Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are an important cell type present in solid tumor microenvironments, including that of gastric cancer. They play a vital role in the promotion of tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and cancer progression through paracrine signaling and modulation of the extracellular matrix. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between gastric cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts remains poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that various factors, such as gene and microRNA variations, are involved in this process. This review discusses recent advances in understanding how these factors are regulated in CAFs and how they affect tumor biology, which may improve our understanding of their role in gastric cancer tumorigenesis and progression and provide new promising targets for therapeutic strategies.