Generic placeholder image

Current Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

Advances in the Tyrosinase Inhibitors from Plant Source

Author(s): Marco Bonesi, Jianbo Xiao, Rosa Tundis*, Francesca Aiello, Vincenzo Sicari and Monica R. Loizzo

Volume 26, Issue 18, 2019

Page: [3279 - 3299] Pages: 21

DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666180522091311

Price: $65


Tyrosinase is a multifunctional copper-containing oxidase which catalyses the oxidation of tyrosine to produce melanin. The alteration in melanin biosynthesis occurs in many diseases. The pigment has a protecting role against skin photo-carcinogenesis, but anomalous melanin pigmentation is an aesthetic problem in human beings. Moreover, the formation of neuromelanin in human brain could contribute to the neurodegeneration associated with Parkinson’s disease. Finally, tyrosinase is also responsible for undesired browning in fruits and vegetables. These topics encouraged the search for new inhibitors of this enzyme for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and foods industries. This review is to report recent trends in the discovery of tyrosinase inhibitors from plant sources, to provide a rationale for the continued study of natural tyrosinase inhibitors, and to recognise the potential therapeutic rewards associated with the identification of these agents.

Keywords: Tyrosinase, melanogenesis, plant source, natural compounds, extract, polyphenols.

Loizzo, M.R.; Tundis, R.; Menichini, F. Natural and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors as antibrowning agents: an update. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 2012, 11, 378-398.
Briganti, S.; Camera, E.; Picardo, M. Chemical and instrumental approaches to treat hyperpigmentation. Pigment Cell Res., 2003, 16(2), 101-110.
[] [PMID: 12622786]
Morpurgo, G.; Catacuzzeno, L.; Peruzzi, S.; Blasi, P.; Fioretti, B. Are tyrosinase inhibitors in sunscreens and cosmetics enhancing UV carcinogenicity? Exp. Dermatol., 2015, 24(7), 546-547.
[] [PMID: 25876676]
Chang, T-S. An updated review of tyrosinase inhibitors. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2009, 10(6), 2440-2475.
[] [PMID: 19582213]
Khan, M.T. Novel tyrosinase inhibitors from natural resources - their computational studies. Curr. Med. Chem., 2012, 19(14), 2262-2272.
[] [PMID: 22414108]
Lee, S.Y.; Baek, N.; Nam, T.G. Natural, semisynthetic and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors. J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem., 2016, 31(1), 1-13.
[] [PMID: 25683082]
Orhan, I.E.; Khan, M.T. Flavonoid derivatives as potent tyrosinase inhibitors - a survey of recent findings between 2008-2013. Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 2014, 14(12), 1486-1493.
[] [PMID: 24853561]
Tundis, R.; Loizzo, M.R.; Bonesi, M.; Menichini, F. Potential role of natural compounds against skin aging. Curr. Med. Chem., 2015, 22(12), 1515-1538.
[] [PMID: 25723509]
Ansari, N.; Khodagholi, F. Natural products as promising drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: molecular mechanism aspect. Curr. Neuropharmacol., 2013, 11(4), 414-429.
[] [PMID: 24381531]
Newman, D.J.; Cragg, G.M. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J. Nat. Prod., 2007, 70(3), 461-477.
[] [PMID: 17309302]
Park, A.; Ku, T.; Yoo, I. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts. J. Cosmet. Sci., 2015, 66(1), 1-13.
[PMID: 26152044]
Wu, Y.Y.; Huang, X.X.; Wu, J.; Zhou, L.; Li, D.Q.; Liu, Q.B.; Li, L.Z.; Yan, X.J.; Song, S.J. A new cyclolignan glycoside from the tubers of Pinellia ternata. J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res., 2015, 17(11), 1097-1103.
[] [PMID: 25989151]
Chen, X.X.; Feng, H.L.; Ding, Y.M.; Chai, W.M.; Xiang, Z.H.; Shi, Y.; Chen, Q.X. Structure characterization of proanthocyanidins from Caryota ochlandra Hance and their bioactivities. Food Chem., 2014, 155, 1-8.
[] [PMID: 24594146]
Usui, K.; Ikeda, T.; Horibe, Y.; Nakao, M.; Hoshino, T.; Mizushima, T. Identification of HSP70-inducing activity in Arnica montana extract and purification and characterization of HSP70-inducers. J. Dermatol. Sci., 2015, 78(1), 67-75.
[] [PMID: 25724362]
Popoola, O.K.; Marnewick, J.L.; Rautenbach, F.; Ameer, F.; Iwuoha, E.I.; Hussein, A.A. Inhibition of oxidative stress and skin aging-related enzymes by prenylated chalcones and other flavonoids from Helichrysum teretifolium. Molecules, 2015, 20(4), 7143-7155.
[] [PMID: 25903365]
Popoola, O.K.; Marnewick, J.L.; Rautenbach, F.; Iwuoha, E.I.; Hussein, A.A. Acylphloroglucinol derivatives from the South African Helichrysum niveum and their biological activities. Molecules, 2015, 20(9), 17309-17324.
[] [PMID: 26393563]
Wang, Z.; Hwang, S.H.; Huang, B.; Lim, S.S. Identification of tyrosinase specific inhibitors from Xanthium strumarium fruit extract using ultrafiltration-high performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci., 2015, 1002, 319-328.
[] [PMID: 26367464]
Senol, F.S.; Acikara, O.B.; Citoglu, G.S.; Orhan, I.E. Dall’ Acqua, S.; Ozgökce, F. Prospective neurobiological effects of the aerial and root extracts and some pure compounds of randomly selected Scorzonera species. Pharm. Biol., 2014, 52(7), 873-882.
[] [PMID: 24920233]
Tuerxuntayi, A.; Liu, Y.Q.; Tulake, A.; Kabas, M.; Eblimit, A.; Aisa, H.A. Kaliziri extract upregulates tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expression in murine B16 melanoma cells. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2014, 14, 166.
[] [PMID: 24884952]
Cömert Önder, F.; Ay, M.; Aydoğan Türkoğlu, S.; Tura Köçkar, F.; Çelik, A. Antiproliferative activity of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma (Hep3B), colon (HT-29) cancer cells and proteases, tyrosinase, β-lactamase enzyme inhibition studies. J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem., 2016, 31(1), 90-98.
[] [PMID: 25683080]
Suwannalert, P.; Kariya, R.; Suzu, I.; Okada, S. The effects of Salacia reticulata on anti-cellular oxidants and melanogenesis inhibition in alpha-MSH-stimulated and UV irradiated B16 melanoma cells. Nat. Prod. Commun., 2014, 9(4), 551-554.
[PMID: 24868882]
Wang, T.J.; An, J.; Chen, X.H.; Deng, Q.D.; Yang, L. Assessment of Cuscuta chinensis seeds׳ effect on melanogenesis: comparison of water and ethanol fractions in vitro and in vivo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 154(1), 240-248.
[] [PMID: 24746484]
Chiang, H.M.; Chien, Y.C.; Wu, C.H.; Kuo, Y.H.; Wu, W.C.; Pan, Y.Y.; Su, Y.H.; Wen, K.C. Hydroalcoholic extract of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and its hydrolysate inhibit melanogenesis in B16F0 cells by regulating the CREB/MITF/tyrosinase pathway. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2014, 65, 129-139.
[] [PMID: 24380755]
Wen, K.C.; Chang, C.S.; Chien, Y.C.; Wang, H.W.; Wu, W.C.; Wu, C.S.; Chiang, H.M. Tyrosol and its analogues inhibit alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone induced melanogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2013, 14(12), 23420-23440.
[] [PMID: 24287915]
Ya, W.; Chun-Meng, Z.; Tao, G.; Yi-Lin, Z.; Ping, Z. Preliminary screening of 44 plant extracts for anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2015, 28(5), 1737-1744.
[PMID: 26408894]
Leevutinun, P.; Krisadaphong, P.; Petsom, A. Clinical evaluation of Gac extract (Momordica cochinchinensis) in an antiwrinkle cream formulation. J. Cosmet. Sci., 2015, 66(3), 175-187.
[PMID: 26454905]
Kim, I.S.; Yoon, S.J.; Park, Y.J.; Lee, H.B. Inhibitory effect of ephedrannins A and B from roots of Ephedra sinica STAPF on melanogenesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2015, 1850(7), 1389-1396.
[] [PMID: 25857772]
Mazlan, N.A.; Mediani, A.; Abas, F.; Ahmad, S.; Shaari, K.; Khamis, S.; Lajis, N.H. Antioxidant, antityrosinase, anticholinesterase, and nitric oxide inhibition activities of three malaysian macaranga species. ScientificWorldJournal, 2013.2013312741
[] [PMID: 24319356]
Sripanidkulchai, B.; Junlatat, J. Bioactivities of alcohol based extracts of Phyllanthus emblica branches: antioxidation, antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammation. J. Nat. Med., 2014, 68(3), 615-622.
[] [PMID: 24557876]
Lall, N.; Kishore, N.; Momtaz, S.; Hussein, A.; Naidoo, S.; Nqephe, M.; Crampton, B. Extract from Ceratonia siliqua exhibits depigmentation properties. Phytother. Res., 2015, 29(11), 1729-1736.
[] [PMID: 26201055]
de Vargas, F. O de Almeida, P.; Aranha, E.S.; de A Boleti, A.P.; Newton, P.; de Vasconcellos, M.C.; Junior, V.F.; Lima, E.S. Biological activities and cytotoxicity of diterpenes from Copaifera spp. oleoresins. Molecules, 2015, 20, 6194-6210.
Feng, H.L.; Tian, L.; Chai, W.M.; Chen, X.X.; Shi, Y.; Gao, Y.S.; Yan, C.L.; Chen, Q-X. Isolation and purification of condensed tannins from flamboyant tree and their antioxidant and antityrosinase activities. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2014, 173(1), 179-192.
[] [PMID: 24671565]
Han, E.; Chang, B.; Kim, D.; Cho, H.; Kim, S. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 2015, 307(1), 57-72.
[] [PMID: 25063049]
Demirkiran, O.; Sabudak, T.; Ozturk, M.; Topcu, G. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of flavonoids from Trifolium nigrescens Subsp. petrisavi. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2013, 61(51), 12598-12603.
[] [PMID: 24328319]
Tundis, R.; Peruzzi, L.; Menichini, F. Phytochemical and biological studies of Stachys species in relation to chemotaxonomy: a review. Phytochemistry, 2014, 102, 7-39.
[] [PMID: 24661611]
Rabbani, M.; Sajjadi, S.E.; Jalali, A. Hydroalcohol extract and fractions of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl: effects on spontaneous motor activity and elevated plus-maze behaviour. Phytother. Res., 2005, 19(10), 854-858.
[] [PMID: 16261514]
Tundis, R.; Bonesi, M.; Pugliese, A.; Nadjafi, F.; Menichini, F.; Loizzo, M.R. Tyrosinase, acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl (Lamiaceae) and its major constituents. Rec. Nat. Prod., 2015, 9, 81-93.
Chen, Y.S.; Lee, S.M.; Lin, Y.J.; Chiang, S.H.; Lin, C.C. Effects of Danshensu and Salvianolic Acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) on cell proliferation and collagen and melanin production. Molecules, 2014, 19(2), 2029-2041.
[] [PMID: 24531218]
Lee, M.G.; Kuo, S.Y.; Yen, S.Y.; Hsu, H.F.; Leung, C.H.; Ma, D.L.; Wen, Z.H.; Wang, H.M. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira extracts on tyrosinase suppressor, wound repair promoter, and antioxidant. ScientificWorldJournal, 2015.2015303415
[] [PMID: 25839053]
Wang, H.M.D.; Chen, C.Y.; Wu, P.F. Isophilippinolide A arrests cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis for anticancer inhibitory agents in human melanoma cells. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014, 62(5), 1057-1065.
[] [PMID: 24359513]
Nakashima, S.; Oda, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Liu, J.; Onishi, K.; Kawabata, M.; Miki, H.; Himuro, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Matsuda, H. Inhibitors of melanogenesis in B16 melanoma 4A5 cells from flower buds of Lawsonia inermis (Henna). Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2015, 25(13), 2702-2706.
[] [PMID: 25987378]
Chu, C.W.; Liu, C.M.; Chung, M.I.; Chen, C.Y. Biofunctional constituents from Michelia compressa var. lanyuensis with anti-melanogenic properties. Molecules, 2015, 20(7), 12166-12174.
[] [PMID: 26151114]
Manosroi, A.; Kitdamrongtham, W.; Ishii, K.; Shinozaki, T.; Tachi, Y.; Takagi, M.; Ebina, K.; Zhang, J.; Manosroi, J.; Akihisa, R.; Akihisa, T. Limonoids from Azadirachta indica var. siamensis extracts and their cytotoxic and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities. Chem. Biodivers., 2014, 11(4), 505-531.
[] [PMID: 24706622]
Jin, Y.J.; Lin, C.C.; Lu, T.M.; Li, J.H.; Chen, I.S.; Kuo, Y.H.; Ko, H.H. Chemical constituents derived from Artocarpus xanthocarpus as inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis. Phytochemistry, 2015, 117, 424-435.
[] [PMID: 26188915]
Chen, X.X.; Shi, Y.; Chai, W.M.; Feng, H.L.; Zhuang, J.X.; Chen, Q.X. Condensed tannins from Ficus virens as tyrosinase inhibitors: structure, inhibitory activity and molecular mechanism. PLoS One, 2014, 9(3)e91809
[] [PMID: 24637701]
de Freitas, M.M.; Fontes, P.R.; Souza, P.M.; William Fagg, C.; Neves Silva Guerra, E.; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Y.K.; Silveira, D.; Fonseca-Bazzo, Y.; Simeoni, L.A.; Homem-de-Mello, M.; Oliveira Magalhães, P. Extracts of Morus nigra L. leaves standardized in chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin: tyrosinase inhibition and cytotoxicity. PLoS One, 2016, 11(9)e0163130
[] [PMID: 27655047]
Jeong, J.Y.; Liu, Q.; Kim, S.B.; Jo, Y.H.; Mo, E.J.; Yang, H.H.; Song, D.H.; Hwang, B.Y.; Lee, M.K. Characterization of melanogenesis inhibitory constituents of Morus alba leaves and optimization of extraction conditions using response surface methodology. Molecules, 2015, 20(5), 8730-8741.
[] [PMID: 26007176]
Naderi, G.A.; Asgary, S.; Sarraf-Zadegan, N.; Oroojy, H.; Afshin-Nia, F. Antioxidant activity of three extracts of Morus nigra. Phytother. Res., 2004, 18(5), 365-369.
[] [PMID: 15173994]
Manosroi, J.; Chankhampan, C.; Kumguan, K.; Manosroi, W.; Manosroi, A. In vitro anti-aging activities of extracts from leaves of Ma Kiang (Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala). Pharm. Biol., 2015, 53(6), 862-869.
[] [PMID: 25431131]
Huang, H.C.; Ho, Y.C.; Lim, J.M.; Chang, T.Y.; Ho, C.L.; Chang, T.M. Investigation of the anti-melanogenic and antioxidant characteristics of Eucalyptus camaldulensis flower essential oil and determination of its chemical composition. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2015, 16(5), 10470-10490.
[] [PMID: 25961954]
Jung, S.Y.; Jung, W.S.; Jung, H.K.; Lee, G.H.; Cho, J.H.; Cho, H.W.; Choi, I.Y.J. The mixture of different parts of Nelumbo nucifera and two bioactive components inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. J. Cosmet. Sci., 2014, 65(6), 377-388.
[PMID: 25898764]
Peng, J.Y.; Han, X.; Xu, L.N.; Qi, Y.; Xu, Y.W.; Xu, Q.W. Two new prenylated coumarins from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames. J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res., 2008, 10(3-4), 279-283.
[PMID: 18335345]
Liu, J.; Li, C-Y.; Zhong, Y-J.; Yang, L.; Li, Y-F. Chemical constituents from Spiranthes sinensis. Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 2013, 47, 108-110.
Liang, C.P.; Chang, C.H.; Liang, C.C.; Hung, K.Y.; Hsieh, C.W. In vitro antioxidant activities, free radical scavenging capacity, and tyrosinase inhibitory of flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames. Molecules, 2014, 19(4), 4681-4694.
[] [PMID: 24739930]
Jeong, E.T.; Jin, M.H.; Kim, M.S.; Chang, Y.H.; Park, S.G. Inhibition of melanogenesis by piceid isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2010, 33(9), 1331-1338.
[] [PMID: 20945131]
Wu, X.B.; Luo, X.Q.; Gu, S.Y.; Xu, J.H. The effects of Polygonum cuspidatum extract on wound healing in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2012, 141(3), 934-937.
[] [PMID: 22469768]
Lee, C.C.; Chen, Y.T.; Chiu, C.C.; Liao, W.T.; Liu, Y.C.; David Wang, H.M. Polygonum cuspidatum extracts as bioactive antioxidaion, anti-tyrosinase, immune stimulation and anticancer agents. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2015, 119(4), 464-469.
[] [PMID: 25311751]
Lin, R.D.; Chen, M.C.; Liu, Y.L.; Lin, Y.T.; Lu, M.K.; Hsu, F.L.; Lee, M.H. New Whitening Constituents from Taiwan-Native Pyracantha koidzumii: structures and tyrosinase inhibitory analysis in human epidermal melanocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2015, 16(12), 28598-28613.
[] [PMID: 26633381]
Loizzo, M.R.; Bonesi, M.; Passalacqua, N.G.; Saab, A.; Menichini, F.; Tundis, R. Antiproliferative activities on renal, prostate and melanoma cancer cell lines of Sarcopoterium spinosum aerial parts and its major constituent tormentic acid. Anticancer. Agents Med. Chem., 2013, 13(5), 768-776.
[] [PMID: 23157592]
Piras, A.; Era, B.; Di Petrillo, A.; González Paramás, A.M.; Maxia, A.; Maccioni, A.; Porcedda, S.; Falconieri, D.; Rosa, A. Evaluation of antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the extracts of Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach fruits. Nat. Prod. Res., 2017, 31(24), 2900-2904.
[] [PMID: 28278619]
Nishina, A.; Ebina, K.; Ukiya, M.; Fukatsu, M.; Koketsu, M.; Ninomiya, M.; Sato, D.; Kimura, H. Dioscin derived from Solanum melongena L. “Usukawamarunasu” attenuates α-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16 murine melanoma cells via downregulation of phospho-CREB and MITF. J. Food Sci., 2015, 80(10), H2354-H2359.
[] [PMID: 26352003]
Kim, S.Y.; Lee, K.H.; Chang, K.S.; Bock, J.Y.; Jung, M.Y. Taste and flavor compounds in box thorn (Lycium chinense Miller) leaves. Food Chem., 1997, 58, 297-303.
Huang, H.C.; Huang, W.Y.; Tsai, T.C.; Hsieh, W.Y.; Ko, W.P.; Chang, K.J.; Chang, T.M. Supercritical fluid extract of Lycium chinense Miller root inhibition of melanin production and its potential mechanisms of action. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2014, 14, 208-218.
[] [PMID: 24972978]
Roh, H.J.; Noh, H.J.; Na, C.S.; Kim, C.S.; Kim, K.H.; Hong, C.Y.; Lee, K.R. Phenolic compounds from the leaves of Stewartia pseudocamellia Maxim. and their whitening activities. Biomol. Ther. (Seoul), 2015, 23(3), 283-289.
[] [PMID: 25995828]
Park, S.Y.; Lee, H.J.; Yoon, W.J.; Kang, G.J.; Moon, J.Y.; Lee, N.H.; Kim, S.J.; Kang, H.K.; Yoo, E.S. Inhibitory effects of eutigosides isolated from Eurya emarginata on the inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2005, 28(11), 1244-1250.
[] [PMID: 16350850]
Kim, J.H.; Jeong, S.C.; Hwang, J.S.; Lee, E.S.; Lee, S.M. Modulation of melanin synthesis by rengyolone isolated from the root of Eurya emarginata in melan-a cells. Phytother. Res., 2014, 28(6), 940-945.
[] [PMID: 24255002]
Imen, M.B.; Chaabane, F.; Nadia, M.; Soumaya, K.J.; Kamel, G.; Leila, C.G. Anti-melanogenesis and antigenotoxic activities of eriodictyol in murine melanoma (B16-F10) and primary human keratinocyte cells. Life Sci., 2015, 135, 173-178.
[] [PMID: 26141996]
Dong, Y.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, T.; Feng, M.; Chen, H.; Zhuang, M.; Lin, L. Bioactive profiles, antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging capacities and protective effects on H2O2-injured PC12 cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Molecules, 2014, 19(7), 9101-9113.
[] [PMID: 24983860]
Ko, H.H.; Tsai, Y.T.; Yen, M.H.; Lin, C.C.; Liang, C.J.; Yang, T.H.; Lee, C.W.; Yen, F.L. Norartocarpetin from a folk medicine Artocarpus communis plays a melanogenesis inhibitor without cytotoxicity in B16F10 cell and skin irritation in mice. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2013, 13, 348.
[] [PMID: 24325567]
Lee, T.H.; Seo, J.O.; Baek, S.H.; Kim, S.Y. Inhibitory effects of resveratrol on melanin synthesis in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation in Guinea pig skin. Biomol. Ther. (Seoul), 2014, 22(1), 35-40.
[] [PMID: 24596619]
Park, J.; Park, J.H.; Suh, H.J.; Lee, I.C.; Koh, J.; Boo, Y.C. Effects of resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, and their acetylated derivatives on cellular melanogenesis. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 2014, 306(5), 475-487.
[] [PMID: 24414332]
Zhou, Q.L.; Yang, X.W. Four new ginsenosides from red ginseng with inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in melanoma cells. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2015, 25(16), 3112-3116.
[] [PMID: 26087936]
Wang, L.; Lu, A.P.; Yu, Z.L.; Wong, R.N.; Bian, Z.X.; Kwok, H.H.; Yue, P.Y.; Zhou, L.M.; Chen, H.; Xu, M.; Yang, Z. The melanogenesis-inhibitory effect and the percutaneous formulation of ginsenoside Rb1. AAPS PharmSciTech, 2014, 15(5), 1252-1262.
[] [PMID: 24895076]
Chen, Y.H.; Huang, L.; Wen, Z.H.; Zhang, C.; Liang, C.H.; Lai, S.T.; Luo, L.Z.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wang, G.H. Skin whitening capability of shikimic acid pathway compound. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2016, 20(6), 1214-1220.
[PMID: 27049279]
Yagi, N.; Nakahashi, H.; Kashima, Y.; Miyazawa, M. Isolation and biological activity of a novel cadinane-type sesquiterpenoid from the essential oil of Alangium salviifolium. J. Oleo Sci., 2014, 63(12), 1223-1229.
[] [PMID: 25452263]
Srisayam, M.; Weerapreeyakul, N.; Barusrux, S.; Kanokmedhakul, K. Antioxidant, antimelanogenic, and skin-protective effect of sesamol. J. Cosmet. Sci., 2014, 65(2), 69-79.
[PMID: 24797023]
Ko, H.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.Y.; Yun, H.Y.; Baek, K.J.; Kwon, N.S.; Choi, H.R.; Park, K.C.; Kim, D.S. Hypopigmentary effects of ethyl P-methoxycinnamate isolated from Kaempferia galanga. Phytother. Res., 2014, 28(2), 274-279.
[] [PMID: 23610003]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy