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Current Analytical Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1573-4110
ISSN (Online): 1875-6727

Research Article

Voltammetric Detection of Tetrodotoxin Real-Time In Vivo of Mouse Organs using DNA-Immobilized Carbon Nanotube Sensors

Author(s): Huck Jun Hong* and Suw Young Ly

Volume 15, Issue 5, 2019

Page: [567 - 574] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573411014666180510145320

Price: $65


Background: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a biosynthesized neurotoxin that exhibits powerful anticancer and analgesic abilities by inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels that are crucial for cancer metastasis and pain delivery. However, for the toxin’s future medical applications to come true, accurate, inexpensive, and real-time in vivo detection of TTX remains as a fundamental step.

Methods: In this study, highly purified TTX extracted from organs of Takifugu rubripes was injected and detected in vivo of mouse organs (liver, heart, and intestines) using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) for the first time. In vivo detection of TTX was performed with auxiliary, reference, and working herring sperm DNA-immobilized carbon nanotube sensor systems.

Results: DNA-immobilization and optimization of amplitude (V), stripping time (sec), increment (mV), and frequency (Hz) parameters for utilized sensors amplified detected peak currents, while highly sensitive in vivo detection limits, 3.43 µg L-1 for CV and 1.21 µg L-1 for SWASV, were attained. Developed sensors herein were confirmed to be more sensitive and selective than conventional graphite rodelectrodes modified likewise. A linear relationship was observed between injected TTX concentration and anodic spike peak height. Microscopic examination displayed coagulation and abnormalities in mouse organs, confirming the powerful neurotoxicity of extracted TTX.

Conclusion: These results established the diagnostic measures for TTX detection regarding in vivo application of neurotoxin-deviated anticancer agents and analgesics, as well as TTX from food poisoning and environmental contamination.

Keywords: Tetrodotoxin, cyclic voltammetry, square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, carbon nanotube sensors, in vivo detection, DNA-immobilization, anticancer agent, neurotoxin.

Graphical Abstract
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