Generic placeholder image

Current Nutrition & Food Science


ISSN (Print): 1573-4013
ISSN (Online): 2212-3881

Review Article

Dietary Requirements for Proteins and Amino Acids in Human Nutrition

Author(s): Matej Brestenský*, Soňa Nitrayová , Peter Patráš and Jozef Nitray

Volume 15, Issue 7, 2019

Page: [638 - 645] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573401314666180507123506

open access plus


Background: An optimal dietary Amino Acid (AA) intake is necessary for the growth of body proteins. A new method for protein quality evaluation called Digestible Indispensable AA Score (DIAAS) was established. Despite that the information about dietary AA requirements are available for different stages of life, in practical conditions, most people deal only with the dietary proteins, if ever.

Objective: The aim of this mini-review was to analyze the protein quality of protein sources by DIAAS and to find AA and protein dietary requirements in human nutrition.

Methods: A literature research was performed using the keyword “amino acid”, “diet”, “nutrition”, “human”, “muscle” and “requirement” individually or all together, in Scopus, Web of Science and Pubmed.

Results: The optimum amount of dietary AA is necessary for AA utilization in the body and is limited by AA which is present in the lowest amount; the surplus of other AA is not utilized in the body. Food and Agriculture Organization reported requirements for dietary protein and AA intake for infants, children, however for adults (over 18) for maintenance. Most of the studies which are dealing with the dietary AA requirements in sports nutrition are aimed at the blends of AA and for branched-chain AA. Concerning the protein quality, at this time, there is little information about the protein quality evaluated by DIAAS method.

Conclusion: Dietary intake of high-quality protein or a blend of different proteins will provide all AA to the body. However, studies on protein quality evaluation by DIAAS method are necessary to perform.

Keywords: Amino acids, diet, human, muscle, nutrition, protein, requirement.

Graphical Abstract
Pencharz PB, Young VR. Protein and amino acids. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, Eds. Present knowledge in nutrition. 9th ed. ILSI Press: Washington 2006; pp. 59-77.
Amipig. Ileal standardised digestibility of amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs. Association Française de Zootechnie, Ajinomot Eurolysine, Aventis Animal Nutrition, INRA, ITCF 2000, [Accessed on 11.03.11]. Available at: http: // amipeng.pdf 2000
National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th ed. The National Academies Press Washington 2012.
Gottlob RO, De Rouchey JM, Tokach MD, et al. Amino acid and energy digestibility of protein sources for growing pigs. J Anim Sci 2006; 84(6): 1396-402.
Baker DH. Advances in protein-amino acid nutrition of poultry. Amino Acids 2009; 37(1): 29-41.
Stipanuk MH, Ueki I, Dominy JE, Simmons CR, Hirschberger LL. Cysteine dioxygenase: A robust system for regulation of cellular cysteine levels. Amino Acids 2009; 37(1): 55-63.
Young VR, Pellett PL. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59(5): 1203S-12S.
Singh BK. Amino acids and nutritional quality of plant products. Amino Acids 2002; 22: 215.
Food and Agricultural Organization. Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition Report of an FAO Expert Consultation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 2013.
Wang WW, Qiao SY, Li DF. Amino acids and gut function. Amino Acids 2008; 37(1): 105-10.
Palii SS, Kays CE, Deval C, Bruhat A, Fafournoux P, Kilberg MS. Specificity of amino acid regulated gene expression: Analysis of gene subjected to either complete or single amino acid deprivation. Amino Acids 2008; 37(1): 79-88.
Suryawan A, O’Connor PMJ, Bush JA, Nguyen HV, Davis TA. Differential regulation of protein synthesis by amino acids and insulin in peripheral and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs. Amino Acids 2008; 37(1): 97-104.
Lewis AJ, Bayley HS. Amino acid availability. In: Ammerman CB, Baker DH, Lewis AJ, Eds. Bioavailability of nutrients for animals: amino acids, minerals and vitamins. Academic Press San Diego 1995; pp. 35-65.
Flynn NE, Bird JG, Guthrie AS. Glucocorticoid regulation of amino acid and polyamine metabolism in the small intestine. Amino Acids 2008; 37(1): 123-9.
Rhoads JM, Wu G. Glutamine, arginine, and leucine signaling in the intestine. Amino Acids 2009; 37(1): 111-22.
Young VR, Borgonha S. Nitrogen and amino acid requirements: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology amino acid requirement pattern. J Nutr 2000; 130(7): 1841S-9S.
Reeds PJ, Garlick PJ. Protein and amino acid requirements and the composition of complementary foods. J Nutr 2003; 133(9): 2953S-61S.
Young VR, Steffee WP, Pencharz PB, Winterer JC, Scrimshaw NS. Total human body protein synthesis in relation to protein requirements at various ages. Nature 1975; 253(5488): 192-4.
Van Goudoever JB, Colen T, Wattimena JL, Huijmans JG, Carnielli VP, Sauer PJ. Immediate commencement of amino acid supplementation in preterm infants: effect on serum amino acid concentrations and protein kinetics on the first day of life. J Pediatr 1995; 127(3): 458-65.
Davis TA, Nguyen HV, Garcia-Bravo R, et al. Amino acid composition of human milk is not unique. J Nutr 1994; 124(7): 1126-232.
Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Wang Z, Ross R. Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 year. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89(1): 81-8.
Kurpad AV, El-Khoury A, Baumier L, et al. Lysine requirement of healthy adult Indian subjects, measured by an indicator amino acid balance technique. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73(5): 900-7.
Rand WM, Young VR. Statistical analysis of N balance data with reference to the lysine requirements in adults. J Nutr 1999; 129(10): 1920-6.
Borsheim E, Tipton KD, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 283(4): E648-57.
Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Ferrando AA, Wolfe RR. Stimulation of muscle anabolism by resistance exercise and ingestion of leucine plus protein. Appl Phys Nutr Me 2009; 34(2): 151-61.
Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(1): 161-8.
Yang Y, Breen L, Burd NA, et al. Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older men. Br J Nutr 2012; 108(10): 1780-8.
Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, et al. Timing of amino acid carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 281(2): E197-206.
Miller SL, Tipton KD, Chinkes DL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Independent and combined effects of amino acids and glucose after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35(3): 449-55.
Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle D Jr, Wolfe RR. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids Am J Physiol 1999; 276(4PT1): E628-34.
Phillips SM, Moore DR, Tang JE. A critical examination of dietary protein requirements, benefits, and excesses in athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2007; 17(Suppl.): S58-76.
Gorban AM, Pokidysheva LI, Smirnova EV, Tyukina TA. Law of the minimum paradoxes. Bull Math Biol 2011; 73(9): 2013-44.
Behm G, Gaus G, Kuther K. Amino acids in animal nutrition. Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Wirkstoffe in der Tierernährung Bonn 1988.
Bender DA. The metabolism of “surplus” amino acids. Br J Nutr 2012; 108(Suppl. 2): S113-21.
Cervantes-Pahm SK, Liu Y, Stein HH. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains. Br J Nutr 2014; 111(9): 1663-72.
Mathai JK, Liu Y, Stein HH. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS). Br J Nutr 2017; 117(4): 490-9.
Abelilla JJ, Liu Y, Stein HH. Digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in oat protein concentrate measured in 20- to 30-kilogram pigs. J Sci Food Agric 2018; 98(1): 410-4.
Rose WC. The amino acid requirements of adult man. Nutr Abstr Rev 1957; 27(3): 631-47.
Millward DJ, Rivers JPW. The nutritional role of indispensible amino acids and the metabolic basis for their requirements. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988; 42(5): 367-93.
Millward DJ. Can we define indispensable amino acid requirements and assess protein quality in adults? J Nutr 1994; 124(suppl. 8): 1509-16.
Young VR, El-Khoury AE. Can amino acid requirements for nutritional maintenance in adult humans be approximated from the amino acid composition of body mixed proteins? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92(1): 300-4.
Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization/UNU. Energy and protein requirements Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. World Health Organization Geneva 1985.
Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization/UNU. Protein and amino acid requirements for human nutrition Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert consultation. UN University Geneva 2007.
Millward DJ. Amino acid scoring patterns for protein quality assessment. Br J Nutr 2012; 108(Suppl. 2): S31-43.
Fuller MF, McWilliam R, Wnag TC, et al. The optimum dietary amino acid pattern for growing pigs; requirements for maintenance and for tissue protein accretion. Br J Nutr 1989; 62(2): 255-67.
Benevenga NJ, Gahl MJ, Crenshaw TD, et al. Protein and amino acid requirements for maintenance and amino acid requirements for growth of laboratory rats. J Nutr 1994; 124(3): 451-3.
Young VR, Bier DM, Pellet PL. A theoretical basis for increasing current estimates of the amino acid requirements in adult man with experimental support. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 50(1): 80-92.
European Food Safety Authority. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for protein. EFSA J 2012; 10: 2557.
Lemon PW, Proctor DN. Protein intake and athletic performance. Sports Med 1991; 12(5): 313-25.
Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, MacDougall JD, Chesley A, Phillips S, Schwarcz HP. Evaluation of protein requirements for trained strength athletes. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73(5): 1986-95.
Phillips SM, Atkinson SA, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD. Gender differences in leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance in endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75(5): 2134-41.
Paddon-Jones D, Rasmussen BB. Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009; 12(1): 86-90.
Tipton KD, Wolfe RR. Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci 2004; 22(1): 65-79.
Alway SE, Grumbt WH, Stray-Gundersen J, Gonyea WJ. Effects of resistance training on elbow flexors of highly competitive bodybuilders. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72(4): 1512-21.
Phillips SM. A brief review of higher dietary protein diets in weight loss: a focus on athletes. Sports Med 2014; 44(Suppl. 2): S149-53.
Bolster DR, Pikosky MA, Gaine PC, et al. Dietary protein intake impacts human skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rates after endurance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 289(4): E678-83.
Juillet B, Fouillet H, Bos C, et al. Increasing habitual protein intake results in reduced postprandial efficiency of peripheral, anabolic wheat protein nitrogen use in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87(3): 666-78.
Volpi E, Kobayashi H, Sheffield-Moore M, Mittendorfer B, Wolfe RR. Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78(2): 250-8.
Tipton KD, Gurkin BE, Matin S, Wolfe RR. Nonessential amino acids are not necessary to stimulate net muscle protein synthesis in healthy volunteers. J Nutr Biochem 1999; 10(2): 89-95.
Crozier SJ, Kimball SR, Emmert SW, Anthony JC, Jefferson LS. Oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. J Nutr 2005; 135(3): 376-82.
Anthony JC, Yoshizawa F, Anthony TG, Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Leucine stimulates translation initiation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. J Nutr 2000; 130(10): 2413-9.
Bauer J, Biolo G, Cederholm T, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2013; 14(8): 542-59.

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy