Traditionally neurological diseases have been classified, on the basis of their pathogenesis, into vascular, degenerative, inflammatory and traumatic diseases. Examples of the main inflammatory neurological diseases include multiple sclerosis, which is characterized by an immune-mediated response against myelin proteins, and meningoencephalitis, where the inflammatory response is triggered by infectious agents. However, recent evidence suggests a potential role of inflammatory mechanisms also in neurological conditions not usually categorized as inflammatory, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’ disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke and traumatic brain injuries. The activation of glial cells and of complement-mediated pathways, the synthesis of inflammation mediators, and the recruitment of leukocytes are the key elements of secondary inflammatory injury following a wide spectrum of primary brain injuries. A better understanding of the role that inflammatory processes play in the natural history of diseases is essential in order to identify potential therapeutic targets and to develop integrated pharmacological approaches acting at different levels and stages of the diseases.